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Unit 12 The Age of Revolution. Age of Reason TimelineEssential Questions Scientific Revolution The Enlightenment Enlightene d Writers Enlightene d Despots.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 12 The Age of Revolution. Age of Reason TimelineEssential Questions Scientific Revolution The Enlightenment Enlightene d Writers Enlightene d Despots."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 12 The Age of Revolution

2 Age of Reason TimelineEssential Questions Scientific Revolution The Enlightenment Enlightene d Writers Enlightene d Despots Political Revolutio ns American Latin American French Map The Age of Revolution

3 I.Map of Political Revolutions Russia France Germa ny Mexi co Britis h coloni es in Ameri ca Spanis h coloni es in Americ a

4 Science I. Timeline for the Age of Reason Reformation Politics 15501575160016251650167517001725175017751800 Copernicus “develops” the Heliocentric Theory Galileo proves the Heliocentric Theory Descartes uses” reason” to guide thinking not faith Isaac Newton develops natural laws John Locke Challenges the Government Montesquieu Government power should be separated by checks/balances Voltaire poked “fun” at the Government Rousseau says that rule should be by the general will (majority) Political Revolution

5 II. The Scientific Revolution Scientific Revolution: A change in the way people looked for answers to life’s questions

6 Age of Reason: time when math and science were used to make decisions (not faith) Scientific Method: process of experimentation and observation

7 Geocentric Theory: “Earth” centered universe Supported by the Church

8 Stop and Think! Partner A: Share with Partner B what the geocentric theory was? Partner B: Share with Partner A which important group supported the geocentric theory?

9 Heliocentric Theory: “Sun” centered universe Proven with a telescope to be true Against Church’s teachings

10 Stop and Think! Partner B: Share with Partner A what the heliocentric theory is. Partner A: Share with Partner B how the heliocentric theory is different from the geocentric theory. Everyone: Think about why the heliocentric theory was so controversial.

11 Great Scientists of the Scientific Revolution NameWhat they didEffect on Society Nicolaus Copernicus Developed theory that the sun was the center of the universe (heliocentric theory) Ideas rejected because he could not prove them Galileo Galilei Proved heliocentric theory with a telescope Proved Church was wrong about something Isaac Newton Explained why heliocentric theory worked (gravity and laws of motions) Set up idea that there were “natural laws” in our world Rene Descartes Used math and science reasoning instead of faith to find answers  Introduced Age of Reason  Used scientific method  “I think therefore I am”

12 Stop and Think! Partner A: Share with Partner B one of the great scientists of the Scientific Revolution and why he is important? Partner B: Do the same Partner A: Go again Partner B: Share the last one

13 III. The EnlightenmentThe Enlightenment The Enlightenment: society became “enlightened” to the way the world really works (natural laws of science not divine belief) especially as applied to “political” ideas

14 Stop and Think! Partner A: Share with Partner B what the Enlightenment was Partner B: Share with Partner A who’s ideas this go against.

15 Enlightenment Writers and Thinkers: Two Treatises of Government NameIdeas John Locke  People have certain rights  Government is supposed to protect everyone’s rights  If government fails to protect rights →people can overthrow the government Baron de Montesquieu  Separate powers of government:  system of checks and balances will be created Jean Jacques Rousseau  Social Contract” People should create their own government and laws – but agree to follow them too!  Majority rule Voltaire  Wrote plays, essays, poems  criticized monarchies, Church, and nobility  Wrote Candide  Inspired people to accept new enlightenment ideas

16 Stop and Think! Partner A: Share with Partner B one Enlightenment thinker and their important ideas Partner B: Share with Partner A a different Enlightenment thinker and their important ideas Partner A: Share a third Partner B: Share the fourth

17 Enlightened Despots Enlightened Despot: absolute monarch that used power for the good of people –Maria Theresa: (Austria) - Everyone should pay taxes  Nobles and Clergy too! - Education for all children –Joseph II: (Austria – Maria’s son) Choose govt. officials on their talent – not who they were or who they knew –Catherine the Great: (Russia) expanded Russia’s borders  got a warm water port

18 Stop and Think! Partner A: Share with Partner B what an enlightened despot is Partner B: Share with Partner A one example of an enlightened despot and what they did Everyone: What impact did Enlightenment ideas have on Enlightened despots?


20 IV. Impact of the Enlightenment Common people became aware of new rights People began to consider revolution as an option to change their government

21 Political Revolutions: The 3 Political Revolutions we will study about here: –American –French –Latin American

22 V. American Revolution When:Late 1770’s Where:British colonies in America Goal: break away from British control


24 How the Enlightenment influenced the American Patriots: Americans were VERY influenced by European Enlightenment writers The Declaration of Independence:The Declaration of Independence LOCKE: - all humans have political rights - people have right to overthrow a bad government

25 The U.S. Constitution: MONTESQUIEU: separation of powers

26 The U.S. Constitution ROUSSEAU: - “Social contract” between people and government - “majority rule”

27 Impact the American Revolution had on other cultures: Inspired others to have their own revolutions The U.S. Constitution became model for other nations to follow and use


29 French Revolution… When: 1780s and 90s Where: France Goal: Citizens wanted new government to protect them

30 Causes… Unfair Social Class System –Poorest people paid all taxes –Wealthiest people enjoyed privileges

31 Stop and Think! Partner A: Share with Partner B what the problem with the tax system is in France.

32 3 rd Estate Middle class (Bourgeoisie), Common workers, Peasants 98% Paid all taxes 2 nd Estate Nobles 1.5% 1st Estate Clergy.5% Enjoyed all privileges

33 Stop and Think! Partner B: Share with Partner A what is wrong with the social structure in France.

34 Causes… Economic Problems –Poor spending decisions by king and queen and bad harvests caused starvation for the poor

35 Stop and Think! Partner A: Share with Partner B how poor economic decisions help cause the people of France to revolt.

36 Causes… Enlightenment Ideas –Let common people realize they had a choice about their government

37 Stop and Think! Partner B: Share with Partner A how Enlightenment ideas helped cause the French Revolution.

38 Causes… American Revolution –Showed that it was possible to win a revolution and change government.

39 Stop and Think! Partner A: Share with Partner B how the American Revolution helped cause the French Revolution.

40 Causes Activity Each shoulder pair (Partner A and B) will create a poster The poster will visually explain the four main causes of the revolution Social Structure/Tax Structure Poor economic decisions Enlightenment Ideas The American Revolution

41 Important Concepts of the French Revolution Bastille –French prison – stormed by French citizens –Began French Revolution (July 14 th, 1789 – Bastille Day!)


43 Concepts… Estates-General: Legislative body of France (like Parliament or Congress – they make laws).

44 Stop and Think! Partner A: Share with Partner B why the Estates-General was not fair.

45 Concepts… Declaration of the Rights of Man –Similar to American Declaration of Independence –Stopped the privileges of the 1 st and 2 nd Estates

46 Concepts… Radicals –Wanted great amounts of change –Often used violence (Jacobins) –Led by Maximillien Robespierre

47 Stop and Think! Partner A: Identify two groups that have used violence in the past or present to achieve their goal Partner B: Identify two other groups

48 Concepts… Reign of Terror –Began with execution of Louis XVI by Maximillien Robespierre –Tens of thousands of nobles killed

49 Concepts… The Directory –5 man committee of “moderates” (not radicals) –Ran France after Reign of Terror –Was weak and inefficient

50 The poor people of France suffered unequal treatment under the rule of: 1. Peter the Great 2. Akbar the Great 3. Phillip II 4. Louis XIV

51 A primary cause of the French Revolution in 1789 was the 1.Rise to power of Napoleon Bonaparte 2. Actions of Prince Metternich 3. Increasing dissatisfaction of the Third Estate 4. Execution of Louis XVI

52 Which of the following statements about France’s social structure is true? 1. The Third Estate was made up entirely of peasants 2. The Second Estate was content with the social structure 3. There was inequality among the three estates 4. Most people belonged to the First Estate

53 The moderates who took control from the radical revolutionaries set up a five-man 1. Monarchy 2. Reign of Terror 3. Directory 4. Republic

54 What was a major cause of the French Revolution? 1. Economic success of mercantilism 2. Failure of the Congress of Vienna 3. Inequalities in the tax structure 4. Continental System in Europe

55 Which group made up the vast majority of French society? 1. The clergy 2. The First Estate 3. The ancient regime 4. The Third Estate

56 Which of the following contributed to France’s financial crisis? 1. A drop in the gold supply 2. An extended period of peace 3. Peasant uprisings 4. Bad harvests

57 In 1793 King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette were 1. Returned to the throne 2. Deported to England 3. Saved from the mob by Lafayette 4. Beheaded

58 This drawing illustrates conditions that contributed primarily to the beginning of the 1. Protestant Reformation 2. French Revolution 3. Napoleonic Wars 4. European Renaissance

59 During which revolution did these executions occur? 1. French 2. Russian 2. Chinese 4. Cuban

60 Which statement is best supported by information found in this chart? 1. Clergy were spared from the Reign of Terror. 2. The Reign of Terror affected all classes equally. 3. The Reign of Terror crossed social and economic boundaries. 4. Peasants were the most frequent victims of the Reign of Terror.

61 VII. Revolutions in Latin America When: Early 1800’s Where: Spanish colonies in America Goal: break away from Spanish control

62 Causes  Spanish control – Spanish govt. controlled too much Latin American life American and French Revolutions – showed it was possible to defeat a European monarchy

63 During the early 1800s, which was a major influence on the struggles for political independence in Latin America? 1. poor conditions in urban centers in Latin America 2. the American and French Revolutions 3. the desire of the Roman Catholic Church in Latin America to escape European control 4. demands by Latin American workers to own their own factories

64 The primary ideas that were the basis of the 19th-century independence movements in Latin America came from the 1. Russian Revolution 2. French Revolution 3. Spanish monarchy 4. Reformation

65 The Enlightenment and the American Revolution were both major influences on 19th-century uprisings in 1. Latin America 2. the Middle East 3. Vietnam 4. Japan

66 Simone Bolivar: great revolutionary leader against Spanish in Latin America

67 In Latin America, both Símon Bólivar and José de San Martin were leaders who 1. worked for independence 2. led Communist-inspired revolutions 3. attepted imperialistic expansion 4. advocated a return to traditional ways

68 The Latin American leaders Simón Bolívar, Miguel Hidalgo, and José de San Martin are most closely associated with 1. independence movements 2. communist revolutions 3. economic expansion 4. educational reforms

69 Results of the Revolutions in Latin America  Spain gave up colonies in Latin America  New nations created

70 Which individual is most closely associated with the changes indicated on these maps? 1. Emiliano Zapata 2. Simón Bolívar 3. Porfirio Díaz 4. Pancho Villa

71 American RevolutionFrench Revolution Latin American Revolutions

72 VIII. Essential Questions 1. How did the Scientific Revolution help prepare the way for the Enlightenment? It proved that the R.C.Church could be wrong – what about divine right? it set up the Age of Reason it established the existence of “natural laws”

73 2. How did Europeans try to apply the ideas of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment to society? that natural laws applied to political rights as well

74 3. Why was the American Revolution an important turning point in global history? it applied Enlightenment ideas to a real event it was the first time a culture created a successful Republic in place of a Monarchy it inspired other people to have their own revolution

75 4. What changes in political thinking were brought about by the French Revolution? Old Ideas: Monarchies – absolutism – divine right New Ideas: Republics – democracy – people’s rights

76 5. Compare and contrast the short term and long term results of these political revolutions: American: –Short Term - broke away, got independence –Long Term - Successful – still used today

77 French: Short Term - overthrew King, got independence Long Term - not successful – monarchy came back

78 Latin American: Short Term - broke away, got independence Long Term - not successful – wealthy benefited but poor people still suffered

79 Poster! Create a poster for all of Unit 12 It must include the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment, the American Revolution, the French Revolution, and Latin American Revolutions It must include important ideas, people, inventions, etc.

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