Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Launching the Nation.. Choosing the President Washington was not eager to become the president Americans thought the opposite January, 1789,"— Presentation transcript:
Choosing the President Washington was not eager to become the president Americans thought the opposite January, 1789, electors from 11 states sent to vote for president Electoral College – group selected by state legislatures to represent popular vote
Choosing the President April 6, 1789 – Washington becomes President Sworn in in New York City Thousands gathered to see this
Republican Motherhood Martha Washington, Abigail Adams, wanted women to participate equally in society
Republican Motherhood Most families in America did not educate their daughters Most stayed home and tended to the house/kids
Life in the New Republic 1790 - 4 million Americans at this time Two major cities – New York and Philadelphia with over 25,000 people Most lived in countryside Merchants and farmers
Life in the New Republic 1790 – New York City had a population of 33,000 Actually served as the first capitol of the U.S. Had to be rebuilt after the Revolution
Setting Precedents What is a precedent? –An action or decision that later serves as an example -Knew that everything that was done would be looked at as setting an example
Setting Precedents Washington’s cabinet –Organizing the executive branch –Different roles –Sec. of State – Thomas Jefferson –Sec. of War – Henry Knox –Sec. of Treasury – Alexander Hamilton –Postmaster General – Samuel Osgood
Establishing Federal Courts Judicial Branch –Judiciary Act – Established the federal court system –3 levels –District court Court of Appeals – Supreme Court Had six justices – John jay was chief Justice and Edmond Randolph as Attorney General
Chapter 10 Lesson 2 Hamilton and National Finances.
Settling the Debt Alexander Hamilton had a huge challenge Paying off the national debt – Amount of money owed to various creditors 11.7 million to foreign creditors 40.4 million to American creditors –Bonds – Promissory notes that were supposed to be repaid to citizens
Settling the Debt Most sold bonds to Speculators – People who bought bonds at lower prices with hopes of that price rising. States’ Debt –States owed the Fed. Gov’t 25 million –Gov’t agreed to pay 21 million of it.
A New Capitol July of 1790 Washington D.C. became our new capitol
Hamilton vs. Jefferson Alexander Hamilton – Strong central government Thomas Jefferson – Protect power of the states These two butted heads continuousely
Hamilton vs. Jefferson Manufacturing and Agriculture –Hamilton – promote growth of manufacturing and commerce –Wanted a diverse economy –Protective Tariff – A duty, or tax on imported goods Protect U.S. goods Make U.S. goods a better bargain
Hamilton vs. Jefferson Jefferson –Wanted more focus on agriculture rather than industry/commerce. –Thought farmers made the best citizens Due to their independence
Debate over the Bank Hamilton wanted a national bank –Depositing funds –Giving loans to businesses. –20 year charter At end of twenty years, bank could close if not working out Jefferson disagreed –Said it was unconstitutional
Strict vs. Loose Construction Hamilton Believed in a loose construction of the constitution –Federal government could take reasonable actions that the constitution did not specifically forbid it from taking -Allowed for the constitution to change as needed
Troubles Abroad French Revolution –Most Americans in favor of it at first –Compared it to ours – same reasoning –Post revolution French declare war on Britain Our own cabinet was split in regards to helping Britain Jefferson – Supported France Hamilton – Supported Britain Neutrality Proclamation – We would remain neutral toward all nations at war in Europe
Jefferson Resigns Resigned due to continuing differences with Hamilton Washington dissappointed
British Violation of U.S. Neutrality British Abuses –Seized all ships carrying food to West Indies –Included American merchant ships –Encouraging Native Americans to fight against Americans on Western Frontier –War is inevitable –Tried to negotiate a treaty
Treaties Jay’s Treaty –John Jay – Chief Justice –British agreed to: Pay for all damaged ships Abandon forts on western frontier Allow merchant ships to trade in western caribbean We agreed to pay back debts to British merchants from Revolutionary War Congress passed
Treaties Pinckney’s Treaty –Thomas Pinckney – Ambassador to Spain Spain was not allowing us to trade in New Orleans Spain agreed to: –CHANGE Florida's border –Reopen port of New Orleans to U.S. –Provide right of deposit – Allow U.S. boats to transfer goods without paying fees on their cargo.
Challenges at Home Northwest Territory –Little Turtle –Supplied by British traders –Fought against settlers in NW territory –Battle of Fallen Timbers Mad Anthony Wayne – U.S. officer Trained his soldiers Defeated the natives Treaty of Greenville – Gave U.S. access to native lands in NW Territory and guaranteed safe travel
Challenges at Home Whiskey Rebellion –New tax on U.S. made whiskey in 1791 –None on imported! –Tax to help pay national debt –Most protestors in Western PA –Washington sent soldiers to stop rebellion – rebels fled prior to fighting
John Adam’s Presidency The Election of 1796 –Political Parties Two candidates, two parties Parties developed over issues i.e. economics, Whiskey Rebellion, etc
John Adam’s Presidency Federalist Candidate – Johns Adams and Thomas Pinckney Democratic-Republican Party – Thomas Jefferson and James Madison –Adams Narrowly defeats Jefferson – 71-68 electoral votes! –Jefferson becomes VP – second place
President Adams XYZ Affair –Privateers- French and U.S. –Pinckney, Marshall, and Gerry sent to France –French Foreign Minister would not talk to them –Sent three secret agents –x,y, and Z –French wanted – $250,000 bribe and a 12 million dollar loan! We said no!!!!! He didn’t tell congress at first
President Adams XYZ Affair –Americans outraged – wanted war –Adam’s response – Built a strong navy and a peacetime army
President Adams Both countries were fighting at sea! 1800 – Both signed a treaty ending all fighting. People not happy – wanted war with France Alien and Sedition acts –1798 –Allowed the U.S to expel any foreigner living in U.S. for any treasonable or secretive functions
President Adams Sedition Act – Any U.S. citizen could not plot against the government Madison and Jefferson –A&S act was unconstitutional –Passed Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Basically outlined reasons for the act being unconstitutional Failed to work
Election of 1800 Adams and Pinckney vs. Jefferson and Aaron Burr –Claimed Jefferson wanted war with France –Republicans uses A&S act as fuel Result – Jefferson and Burr won by 8 electoral votes -Twelfth Amendment – Created a separate ballot for the Vice Pres.