Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Skeletal System Characteristics and Treatment of Common Skeletal Disorders.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Skeletal System Characteristics and Treatment of Common Skeletal Disorders."— Presentation transcript:

1 Skeletal System Characteristics and Treatment of Common Skeletal Disorders

2 Trauma  Fractures  Dislocations  Sprains  Strains

3 Fractures (aka break) pg 108  Most common traumatic injury to a bone  When this occurs, there is swelling d/t injury and bleeding tissues  The common types of fractures are:  Greenstick  Closed/simple  Open/compound  Comminuted

4 Greenstick  The simplest type of fracture  Bone is partially bent, but never completely separates  Break is similar to that of a young, sap- filled woodstick, where the fibers separate lengthwise when bent  Common among children b/c their bones contain flexible cartilage


6 Closed/Simple  When the bone is broken, but the broken ends do not pierce through the skin

7 Open/Compound  Most serious type of fracture  The broken bone ends pierce and protrude through the skin  Can cause infection of the bone and neighboring tissue


9 Comminuted  When the bone is splintered or broken into many pieces that can become embedded in the surrounding tissue

10 Restoring bone  Occurs through 3 main methods  Closed reduction = cast or splint  Bony fragments are brought into alignment by manipulation and a cast or splint is applied  Open reduction = internal fixation  Through surgical intervention, devices such as wires, metal plates, or screws are used to hold the bone in alignment and a cast or splint may be applied  Traction  Pulling force used to hold the bones in place, used for fractures of long bones

11 Internal Fixation


13 Dislocations  Occurs when a bone is displaced from its proper position in a joint  May result in the tearing and stretching of the ligaments  Reduction or return of the bone to its proper position is necessary, along with rest to allow the ligaments to heal


15 Sprain  An injury to a joint caused by any sudden or unusual motion, such a “turning the ankle”  The ligaments are either torn from their attachments to the bones or torn across, but the joint is not dislocated  Accompanied by rapid swelling and acute pain in the area and is treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

16 Strain  Overstretching or tearing of muscle

17 Concussion  Result of a severe blow to the head  May be mild or severe and temporarily affect memory, judgment, speech, balance, and coordination

18 Hammer Toe  Toe that’s curled (flexed) d/t a bend in the middle joint of one or more toes  May be caused by shoes that are too tight or heels to high  The longest of the 4 smaller toes may be forced against the front of the shoe, resulting in unnatural bending of the toes with pain and pressure in the affected area


20 Diseases of the Bones: Arthritis  Inflammatory condition of one or more joints, accompanied by pain and often by changes in bone position  At least 20 different types, the most common being rheumatiod arthritis and osteoarthritis

21 Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)  Chronic, auto-immune disease which affects the connective tissue and joints  There is acute inflammation of the connective tissue, thickening of the synovial membrane, and ankylosis (joints become fused) of the joints  Joints are badly swollen and painful  Cause is unknown

22 Osteoarthritis  Known as degenerative joint disease  Occurs with aging; about 80% of all Americans affected  Articular cartilage degenerates and a bony spur formation occurs at the joint  Joints may enlarge; there is pain and swelling, especially after activity

23 Other diseases  Gout  Joint disorder characterized by an acute inflammation commonly affecting the big toes; accumulation of uric acid crystals  Rickets  Found in children and caused by a lack of Vit D; bones become soft d/t lack of calcification causing bone deformities  Slipped (herniated) disc:  Condition where a cartilage disc ruptures or protrudes out of place and places pressure on the spinal nerve  Whiplash injury:  Trauma to the cervical vertebra, usually the result of a MVA (what does MVA stand for?)

24 Gout

25 Rickets

26 Herniated Disc

27 Abnormal Curvatures of the Spine  Kyphosis  Hunchback  Humped curvature in the thoracic area  Lordosis  Swayback  Exaggerated inward curvature in the lumbar region, just above the sacrum  Scoliosis  Side-to-side or lateral curvature of the spine *page 112, figure 6-17*

28 Other Disorders  Osteoporosis – “silent disease”  Porous bone disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue  Has no symptoms until a sudden strain, bump, or fall causes a fracture or a vertebrae to collapse  Collapsed vertebrae may be seen in the form of loss of height, severe back pain, or spinal deformities  See figure 6-19 page 114

29  Osteomyelitis  Infection which may involve all parts of the bone  May result from injury or systemic infection and most commonly occurs in children ages 5-14  Osteosarcoma  Bone cancer  Most common sight is just above the knee

30 One more term to know:  Arthroscopy  Examination of a joint using an athroscope with fiber optic lens, most knee injuries are treated with arthroscopy


Download ppt "Skeletal System Characteristics and Treatment of Common Skeletal Disorders."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google