Presentation on theme: "Physiological Diseases of the human Skeleton. Inflammatory Disorders of joints Joint pain and discomfort can be caused by many factors Bursitis Arthritis."— Presentation transcript:
Inflammatory Disorders of joints Joint pain and discomfort can be caused by many factors Bursitis Arthritis Osteoarthritis (OA) Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Gouty Arthritis (Gout)
Bursitis Bursitis is a joint disorder that is most commonly caused by falling on one’s knee It is commonly called “water on the knee” During bursitis the synovial membrane becomes inflamed and may need to be drained of excess synovial fluid
Arthritis Arthritis comes from latin Arth = joints itis = inflammation There are over 100 different forms joint inflammation Out of all the types of inflammation “arthritis” is the most widespread and crippling disease in the U. S.
All forms of arthritis have the same initial symptoms pain stiffness swelling Depending on the form of arthritis other symptoms will occur
Osteoarthritis (OA) This is the most common form of arthritis It is a chronic degenerative condition that typically affects the aged. OA affects articular cartilages and is often called “wear and tear” arthritis because over time cartilage will wear down and expose bone.
OA is a very slowly progressing disease of the joints It is usually irreversible but can be managed and controlled with a mild analgesic such as aspirin or ibuprofen
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is also a chronic degenerative disease It usually starts between the ages of 40 and 50 but can happen at any age RA is an autoimmune disease -- a disorder in which the body’s immune system attempts to destroy its own tissues.
Rheumatoid Arthritis RA affects 3 times as many women as men During RA, pannus, an abnormal tissue that clings to the joint, erodes articular cartilages When this happens scar tissue is formed and can become ossified and even fully fuse bones together
Gouty Arthritis (Gout) Gout is a disease in which uric acid (urea) accumulates in the blood and may be deposited as needle shaped crystals in the soft tissues of joints This leads to an agonizingly painful attack on a single joint The big toe is most commonly affected by gout
Skeletal Disorders We have looked at a few diseases and malfunctions of the skeletal system already Now we will take a look at the skeletal system as a whole and look at some problems that can occur, including breakage
Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a loss in bone mass or bone density leading to thin fragile bones It is most common in the spine and the neck of the femur It can easily be seen in the elderly
Even though osteoporosis can happen in anyone it seems to be more common among women after menopause Other people at high risk are smokers, people who have a poor diet, and people who do not exercise regularly
Bone Fractures Bone fractures can happen for many reasons. Because of this, there are many different ways a bone can break We will look at eight of the most common types
Types of bone fractures Simple Compound Comminuted Compression Depression Impacted Spiral Greenstick
Simple Fracture In a simple fracture the bone breaks cleanly but does not penetrate the skin Sometimes called a “closed fracture”
Compound Fracture In a compound fracture the broken ends of the bone protrude through the soft tissues and the skin Sometimes called an “open fracture”
Comminuted fracture A comminuted fracture occurs when a bone breaks into many fragments Particularly common in the aged, who have brittle bones
Compression Fracture A compression fracture occurs when bone is crushed This is common is osteoporotic bones
Depression Fracture Depression fractures occur when the bone is pressed inward on itself This is typically seen in fractures of the skull
Impacted Fracture Impacted fractures occurs when bone ends are forced into each other Common when someone falls with outstretched arms or on their hip
Spiral Fracture This is a ragged break that occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone Common in sports fractures
Greenstick fracture This is when a bone breaks incompletely Sometimes called a hairline fracture Won’t show up in an X- ray until bone starts to remodel about 7 days after incident