Osteoporosis: What is it? Loss of bone density and mass Bones become more porous, increasing risk of fractures
Osteoporosis 52 year old Female84 year old Female
Osteoporosis: Causes More common in women, especially of Asian and European descent Aging leads to a loss of osteoblasts loss in bone density With the onset of menopause (mid-forties to fifties), diminishing estrogen levels lead to excessive bone resorption (osteoclast activity)
Osteoporosis: Treatment Age: Vitamin D and calcium supplements drugs that slow bone loss frequent moderate exercise (help make bones stronger) Menopause: drugs that raise estrogen levels
Arthritis: What is it? Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune (body attacking itself) disease which causes joint stiffness and bone deformity Inflammation and swelling of flexible joints, destruction of articular cartilage, and ankylosis (fusion of joints)
Arthritis: Causes Osteoarthritis is caused by wear and tear on articular cartilage due to age, injury, frequent use, or infection. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease where antibodies attack articular cartilage leading to inflammation etc. While its cause is unknown, there is a genetic component and smokers are at increased risk.
Arthritis: Treatment Depends on the cause… Anti-inflammatory drugs (Advil, steroids) cold-packs immune-suppressing drugs (rheumatoid) Physical Therapy (PT) Surgery Stem cells regrow cartilage
Scoliosis: What is it? An abnormal curvature of the spine from side-to-side. Often not painful, but can be. Most often diagnosed and develops in adolescence. Also seen in elderly patients.
Scoliosis: Causes Mostly unknown. Can develop from problems in other parts of the body (spina bifida, cerebral palsy), arthritis, improper development of the spine at birth, or have genetic causes.
Treatment Bracing, surgery, PT, and chiropractics (older patients)
Rickets: What is it? Softening of bones which can lead to bone tenderness, bow-legged posture, improper skeletal development, tetany (uncontrolled muscle spasms)
Rickets: Causes 1. Vitamin D deficiency 2. Lack of calcium in diet Vitamin D is required for proper calcium absorption Vitamin D is produced when you are exposed to sunlight (UV rays). Darker-skinned people require longer exposure to sunlight Rarely seen in developed countries. Most commonly seen today in developing countries where children are malnourished.
Treatments Vitamin D supplement + Calcium supplement in diet Exposure to sunlight
Rickets Children in developed nations don’t go outdoors as much and often play inside on their electronic devices. Why do you think rickets are not a problem then for children in these countries? Milk + Vitamin D
Blount’s Disease: What is it? Bow-leggedness that becomes progressively worse with age. Often seen in children and adolescents. Associated with overweight individuals.
Blount’s Disease: Causes The inner part of the tibia under the patella fails to develop properly leading to a slanting of the bones, angled inward. This developmental failure is often the result of extra stress placed on the tibia with obese individuals
Kyphosis: Causes In children and adolescents, this condition may result from poor posture, misshapen vertebrae or problems during fetal development. In adults, this condition is often the result of another disease, such as arthritis, osteoporosis, trauma, or cancer