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Chapter 5 The Skeletal System: Pathology

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1 Chapter 5 The Skeletal System: Pathology
Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Seventh Edition Elaine N. Marieb Chapter 5 The Skeletal System: Pathology Slides 5.45 – 5.55 Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L. Cook Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

2 Bone Fractures A break in a bone Types of bone fractures
Closed (simple) fracture – break that does not penetrate the skin Open (compound) fracture – broken bone penetrates through the skin


4 Common Types of Fractures
Table 5.2

5 Comminuted Fracture

6 Compression Fracture

7 Depression Fracture

8 Impacted Fracture

9 Spiral Fracture

10 Greenstick Fracture

11 Bone Fractures Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization Reduction is the realignment of the bone ends Two types of reduction: Closed reduction: bone ends are coaxed back into their normal position by the physician’s hands Open reduction: surgery is performed and the bone ends are secured together with pins or wires Immobilization occurs with a cast or traction to allow the healing process to begin (6 to 8 weeks for a simple fracture)

12 Stages in the Healing of a Bone Fracture
Figure 5.5

13 Repair of Bone Fractures
Hematoma (blood-filled swelling) is formed (blood vessels are ruptured when the bone breaks) Break is splinted by a fibrocartilage callus (new capillaries, connective tissue form for repair) Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bony callus as osteoblasts and osteoclasts migrate to the area Bony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch of bone

14 Diseases of the Vertebral Column
Scoliosis Lordosis Kyphosis

15 The Vertebral Column Vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs
The spine has a normal curvature Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location Figure 5.14


17 Diseases of the Vertebral Column
Scoliosis – an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine

18 Diseases of the Vertebral Column
Lordosis – an exaggerated curvature of the lumbar spine

19 Diseases of the Vertebral Column
Kyphosis – an exaggerated curvature of the thoracic spine (usually superior thoracic spine)

20 Inflammatory Conditions Associated with Joints
Bursitis – inflammation of a bursa usually caused by a blow or friction Tendonitis – inflammation of tendon sheaths Arthritis – inflammatory or degenerative diseases of joints Over 100 different types The most widespread crippling disease in the United States

21 Injuries to Joints Dislocation: displacement of a bone from its joint
Strain: less serious than sprain; a stretched or partially torn muscle Sprain: forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint that stretches or tears its ligaments but does not dislocate the bones.

22 Clinical Forms of Arthritis
Osteoarthritis Most common chronic arthritis Probably related to normal aging processes Articular cartilage gets worn out. Exposed bone thickens, forming bone spurs. Bone spurs protrude into joint cavity, impairing mobility. Typically affects fingers, cervical and lumbar spine, knees, and hips. Not usually bilateral

23 Areas commonly affected by osteoarthritis:

24 Clinical Forms of Arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis An autoimmune disease – the immune system attacks the joints. Inflammation of the synovial membranes, synovial fluid and white blood cells accumulate in joint cavity. WBC’s produce pannus which clings to and erodes articular cartilage. Scar tissue forms between bones, possibly replaced by bone (ankylosis). Symptoms begin with bilateral inflammation of certain joints (particularly the fingers, wrists, ankles, and feet) Usually begins around years old, but can develop at any age Often leads to deformities

25 Rheumatoid Arthritis

26 Rheumatoid Arthritis

27 Aging Bones Osteoporosis: porous bones; bone- thinning disease
Bone resorption outpaces bone deposition Bone mass depleted Fractures more common Shrinkage of vertebrae

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