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Communicable Disease Basics. Objectives n Describe three ways infectious agents can be transmitted n Describe at least three ways to decrease risk of.

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Presentation on theme: "Communicable Disease Basics. Objectives n Describe three ways infectious agents can be transmitted n Describe at least three ways to decrease risk of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Communicable Disease Basics

2 Objectives n Describe three ways infectious agents can be transmitted n Describe at least three ways to decrease risk of infections in public settings n List three examples of common infectious diseases and how to reduce risk of infection

3 Chain of Infection

4 n Model used to understand the infection process n Each link represents step in transmission of infection n Each link has to be present and in order for an infection to occur

5 1 - The Infectious Agent -any disease causing microorganism (pathogen)

6 Infectious agents are: n Bacterial n Viral n Fungal n Parasitic

7 2 - The Reservoir -Where a microorganism normally lives and reproduces

8 Examples of reservoirs: n Humans n Animals n Water n Food

9 3 - The Portal of Exit - route of escape of the pathogen from the reservoir.

10 Examples of portals of exit: n Flu or cold - mucous secretions n West Nile Virus - when the mosquito bites and feeds on the bird’s blood n Hepatitis A - stool n SARS - droplet, contact

11 4 - The Route of Transmission (Spread) - the way the pathogen gets from the reservoir to the new host

12 Transmission: Respiratory Droplets n From respiratory tract (i.e., nose, mouth) secretions of infected person –E.g. cough, sneeze n Do not circulate in air for long time or travel far (mostly < 3 feet) n Many diseases spread by respiratory droplets; e.g. flu, cold, pertussis, SARS n Can spread germs directly or indirectly

13 Droplet Transmission Agent is coughed or sneezed out into the air and floats on droplets

14 Direct Spread by Droplets n Close contact with infected person (<3 ft) n Infected person coughs, sneezes, talks, sings n Droplets land directly on mucous membranes (eyes, nose, mouth) of susceptible person

15 Indirect Spread by Droplets Droplets with the infectious agent land on a table, doorknob etc.

16 Indirect Spread by Droplets Someone touches contaminated object

17 Indirect Spread by Droplets Touch nose, mouth, eyes with contaminated hand

18 Airborne Transmission n Germs stay suspended in air on small particles n Uncommon method of transmission n Only occurs for certain germs, such as tuberculosis –Less commonly for flu, SARS

19 Airborne - This Needs to be Breathed in to be Infectious

20 Airborne Transmission n Germs stay suspended in air on small particles n Uncommon method of transmission n Only occurs for certain germs, such as tuberculosis –Less commonly for flu, SARS

21 Other Methods of Transmission n Food/water/hands contaminated with stool from infected person; e.g., norovirus n Blood exposures, sexual contact –a.k.a. blood-borne; e.g. HIV, hepatitis B and C n Vector-borne –E.g. Mosquitoes and West Nile virus, malaria n Unlikely methods of spread in courtroom

22 What Do You Need to Do? n Make sure that you have available for staff and patient use an adequate supply of: –surgical masks –tissues –alcohol hand rub –trash cans with foot pedals to lift lid for disposing of tissues/masks

23 5 - The Portal of Entry -route through which the pathogen enters its new host

24 Respiratory System n Inhale germs

25 Other Portals of Entry Sexual contact Breaks in Protective Skin Barrier Ingestion

26 6 - TheSusceptible Host 6 - The Susceptible Host - A person who can get sick when they are exposed to a disease causing pathogen

27 How to Break the Chain of Infection

28 What Is the Purpose of Respiratory Hygiene? n To reduce the transmission of airborne diseases

29 Hand Hygiene n Wash hands frequently with soap and warm water for at least 20 seconds n Alcohol hand gels

30 Use gloves where contact with body secretions and excretions is taking place

31 Cover Your Cough!

32 Cough Etiquette n Limit close contact (<3 feet) with coughing clients n Cover cough/sneeze with tissue n Offer mask to coughing clients

33 Keep a clean environment n Clean contaminated surfaces with commercial germicidal cleanser or wipes

34 Maintain vaccinations for employees n Flu shot- every year for age >50 and high-risk groups n Tetanus shot every 10 years n Hepatitis B for persons who may contact objects contaminated with blood n Pneumovax (“pneumonia” vaccine) for age ≥65 n Hepatitis A

35 What Are Some of the Airborne Diseases of Concern? n Pertussis n Tuberculosis n Influenza n Common colds

36 Pertussis (Whooping Cough) n Droplet and contact transmission n Runny nose and prolonged severe cough n A bacterial infection n Most dangerous for babies n Vaccine preventable for children aged 7 and under

37 Tuberculosis Agent n Caused by bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis Reservoir n Humans

38 TB in King County

39 Latent TB Infection vs. Active TB Disease

40 Latent TB Infection n Person infected with TB bacteria n Bacteria kept dormant by person’s immune system n Not sick or contagious n 10% develop TB disease over life time n Infection detected by TB skin test

41 TB Skin Test (PPD)

42 Active TB Disease n Usually involves lung infection n Cough >3 weeks, fevers, weight loss, night sweats n Can cause serious illness but is treatable with antibiotics n Contagious until appropriately treated

43 Preventing Spread of TB n Patients with TB disease should delay court appearance until appropriate duration of therapy n Patients with active TB are no longer contagious after 2-3 weeks of appropriate therapy –should be cleared by doctor

44 Influenza (Flu) Agent n Virus Reservoir n Humans n Animals (e.g. birds, pigs) –Generally different strains

45 Flu Transmission: Respiratory Droplets n Direct: Close contact (<3 feet) –Droplets from cough/sneeze enter mouth, nose, eyes of susceptible person n Indirect: Contaminated surfaces n Cases peak each winter in U.S.

46 How Do I Protect Myself From the Flu? n Flu Vaccine Recommended for:  Persons >50 years old  Anyone with a chronic illness, such as asthma or diabetes  Children age 6-23 months  Women who will be pregnant during flu season

47 Habits for Good Health n Avoid close contact with people who are sick n Stay home when sick n Cover mouth/nose with tissue when coughing/sneezing n Avoid touching nose, mouth, eyes n Wash hands often with soap/water or alcohol rub

48 What Can You Do to Reduce Your Chances of Getting Sick? n Encourage coughing clients to wash their hands (or use alcohol hand rub) n Wash your own hands frequently n Wipe down counters, pens, phones, computer keyboards, etc. with disinfectant cleaner as needed n Cough etiquette- cover with tissue n Offer mask to coughing clients

49 Recommendations n Staff and clients should have access to: –Hand washing facilities –Tissues –Trash cans for disposing of tissues n Consider having alcohol hand rub available

50 QUESTIONS???


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