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Migration Notes.

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Presentation on theme: "Migration Notes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Migration Notes

2 Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration
British sociologist (1834 – 1913) Laws of Migrations: Most migrants go only a short distance Distance Decay Most migrations proceed step-by-step (Lee’s Model) If they do move a long distance, they are more likely to travel to a big city (Gravity Model) Every migration flow produces a counterflow Rural migrants move to city; city dwellers move to suburbs Most migration is from rural to urban Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults Most international migrants are young males Changed with time; women comprise 40-60% of International migrants (55% of U.S. migrants)

3 Why? Most people migrate for ECONOMIC reasons Push and Pull factors
New jobs Better wages Escape poverty Find higher standard of living Push and Pull factors Push us from one location Pull us to another

4 Types of Migration Choose to migrate Remember
Voluntary Migration Forced Migration Choose to migrate Remember Must be permanent If they return (guest workers, time-contract workers) they are not included in these numbers a.k.a. Involuntary migration Examples: Triangle Trade Atlantic Arm Native American relocation in Great Plains region of U.S.

5 Internal Migrations Two kinds
Intraregional Interregional Intraregional: people moving within one geographic region within a country Urbanization: move from rural to urban Suburbanization: move from urban to suburban Counterurbanization: move from urban to rural Interregional: people moving from one region to another within a country Can be international if culture is maintained

6 Interregional Examples

7 Global Migration Trends

8 Global Migration Trends
Wilbur Zelinsky- Migration Transition From less-developed Stage 2 countries To more-developed Stage 4 countries 3 largest migration flows Asia to Europe Asia to North America Latin America to North America Net In Migration: Europe, North America & Oceania Net Out Migration: Asia, Latin America & Africa

9 U.S. Immigration Trends 3 Phases American colonies
European settlement, mainly British African slaves Nineteenth-Twentieth Century : Western Europe 1880s: Northern Europe Beginning of Twentieth Century: Southern & Eastern Europe 2nd Half of Twentieth Century Latin America & Asia Periods of Decline U.S. Civil War, 1893 Depression, WWI, Great Depression, WWII



12 Refugees UN reports 24 million refugees worldwide Two types
Numbers vary a lot Two types International refugees Crossed one or more international borders and are in a country other than their own Intranational Abandoned their homes but not their homeland

13 How do you identify a refugee?
UN Definition A person who has well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political group 3 General Characteristics Move with only what they can carry Begin journey by foot, bicycle, wagon or boat Lack official documents usually needed for international migration

14 U.S. Refugee Numbers Refugee Arrivals by Country of Nationality: Fiscal Years 2009 to 2011 Country of nationality Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Total , , , Burma , , , Bhutan , , , Iraq , , , Somalia , , , Cuba , , , Eritrea , , , Iran , , , DR Congo , , Ethiopia Afghanistan All other countries, including unknown , , ,

15 2005 Refugee Numbers Country Refugees Afghanistan 1,908,100 Sudan
693,300 Burundi 438,700 DR Congo 430,600 Somalia 394,800 Vietnam 358,200 Palestinians 349,700 (4,300,000) Iraq 262,100 Azerbaijan 233,700 Liberia 231,100

16 Examples Syrian Refugees
Civil Wars in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Angola, & Sudan Ethnic war between Hutu & Tutsi tribes in Rwanda Has spilled over into DR Congo & Burundi Displacement due to ongoing dispute between Israelis & Palestinians Afghanistan Due to Taliban rule Soviet Invasion in s U.S. involvement during 2000s “Boat People” who fled Communist rule in Vietnam

17 Yugoslavia After the collapse of the former Yugoslavia, over 1 million were displaced Formed 5 independent countries Bosnia & Herzegovina Croatia Macedonia Serbia & Montenegro (which later split) Slovenia

18 Lee’s Model of Migration

19 Key Terms Push Factors Pull Factors Intervening Obstacle
Intervening Opportunity

20 Key Terms Defined Push Factor: Factor that induces people to leave old residences. Pull Factor: Factor that induces people to move to a new location. Intervening Obstacle: An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration. Intervening Opportunity: A favorable environmental, economic or cultural feature that redirects migration.

21 Lee’s Model of Migration
Destination Source Region Push Factors 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Pull Factors 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Intervening Obstacle Migration

22 Push/Pull Factors Economic Environmental Cultural
Economic & Environmental push/pull factors are generally associated with voluntary migration. Cultural push/pull factors are generally associated with forced migration Note: people tend to move on excessively positive images/expectations that may not always be accurate

23 Push/Pull Factors Economic Environmental Cultural Economic
Push Factors Pull Factors Economic Poverty Few job opportunities Low wages Environmental Hazardous regions Adverse physical conditions Too little water/too much water Cultural Slavery Political instablity Religious/ethnic persecution (refugees) Economic Higher standard of living More job opportunities Higher wages Environmental Stable climates Cultural Stable political conditions

24 Intervening Obstacle/Opportunity
Examples of Obstacles Environmental Mountains, rivers, bodies of water, etc. Cultural Passport to leave/visa to come in Economic Run out of money Examples of Opportunities New jobs along migration route Jobs created to divert rivers for irrigation (economic as well) Move into an ethnic enclave along route

25 Practical Application of Lee’s Model
Source Region Destination Region Return Pull Factors + Push Factors - Intervening Obstacle Pull Factors + Push Factors - Migration Few Arrive Many leave Intervening Opportunity Other Destination

26 Example

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