2 Internal Migration Migration that occurs within a country’s borders. Examples/Reasons for internal vs. international:same language, familiar cultural aspects, shorter distances traveled
3 INTERNAL MIGRATIONS Two Types: Intraregional Interregional
4 Intraregional Migration Intraregional migrations--people moving or being moved within one geographic realm (region) of a countryCurrent examples:Rural to urban:increases with development, ¾ of core countries population in urban areasUrban to suburban:lifestyle changes (babies)Metropolitan to nonmetropolitan areas:called counter-urbanization, increased technology allows people to work outside of the city
5 Interregional Migrations Interregional Migration-people moving or being moved from one geographic realm (region) to another within a countryFrom SouthCurrent USA examples:Movement North to South, and East to WestNet migration (immigrants-emigrants) Figures as of 2007South-(+1,419,000)Northeast-(-915,000)Midwest-(-533,000)West-(+29,000)refugees/evacuees from the Gulf Coast region to other parts of the United StatesRural to urban areas to find work
6 Interregional Migrations Current World examples:To Brazil’s interior: Brasiliato North in Italy, and North to South in the UK for JobsIslands of development are cities with foreign investment and jobsWest African coastEuropean colonies in SE Asia attracted Chinese
7 External Migration Movement across country borders Also called International migrationEmigrant: one who migrates out of a countrySubtracts from total populationImmigrant: one who migrates into a countryAdds to total population
9 Global Migration Patterns From less-developed Stage 2 countries into more-developed Stage 4 countries3 largest migration flowsAsia to EuropeAsia to North AmericaLatin America to North AmericaNet In Migration: North America, Europe, Oceania (more people moving in)Net Out Migration: Asia, Latin America, Africa(more people moving out)
10 US Immigration Patterns Three main waves1. Colonial America:European settlement- 2 million, mostly BritishAfrican slaves – 800, 000
12 US Immigration Patterns 2. 19th century ( )3 European Peaks1840s and 1850s:-Northern and Western Europe (Ireland, Germany)1880s:-Northern and Western Europe (Ireland, Germany, Norway, Sweden):-Southern and Eastern Europe [Italy, Russia, Austria-Hungary (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine) ]
16 Immigration Policies USA Quota Laws Quota Act of 1921 and Origins Act of 1924: 2% of 1910 populationImmigration Act of 19651968: Hemisphere quotas1978: Global QuotasCurrently: Global Quota of 620, 000 with no more than 7% from each countryMajor Exceptions: family reunification, employment, talented, refugees
17 Immigration PoliciesBrain Drain: large-scale emigration by talented people out of the peripheryGuest Workers: To Europe from Middle East and North AfricaExample: 750,000 Turks employed in GermanyTime-Contract workers: South and East Asian workers to Southeast Asia
18 What about refugees? UN definition A person who has well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political group.UN reports 24 million refugees worldwideIs this accurate?
19 What about refugees? UN definitions International refugees:Those who have crossed one or more international borders and are encamped in a country other than their ownIntranational refugees:Those who have abandoned their homes but not their homeland
20 It is difficult to identify refugees. No mention of natural/enviromental disasterUN must distinguish between refugees and voluntary migrants before granting asylum.Three general characteristics, individual or aggregate (collectively):Most refugees move without any more tangible property than they can carry or transport with them.Most refugees make their first “step” on foot, by bicycle, wagon, or open boat.Refugees move without the official documents that accompany channeled migrations.
21 Regions of Dislocation Sub-Saharan AfricaSeveral of the world’s largest refugee crises plagued Africa during the 1990s and early 21st century -8 million “official” refugeesCivil wars in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Angola, and SudanHostilities between the Hutu and Tutsi tribes in Rwanda
22 Other regions of dislocation… North Africa and Southwest AsiaIsrael and the displaced Arab populations that surround itExhibits qualities that are likely to generate additional refugee flow in the futureThe Kurdish population following the Gulf War (1991)Taliban rule in AfghanistanAfghanistan after the Soviet invasion during the 1980s
23 Regions of dislocation continued… South AsiaPakistan accommodated forced emigrants from AfghanistanMajor refugee problem stems from a civil war in Sri Lanka
24 Regions of dislocation continued… Southeast Asia1979-“Boat people” who fled communist rule in Vietnam (2 million). Settled in developed countries-US, Canada, UK, FranceIn the early 1990s, Cambodia generated the region’s largest refugee flowToday--largest number of refugees come from Myanmar (Burma). Ethnic Rohingya fleeing refugee camps and persecution.
25 Regions of dislocation continued… EuropeAfter the collapse of Yugoslavia, over 1 million were displacedSouth AmericaColombian illegal drug violence, especially in rural areas