2 Ravestein’s Laws Ravenstein’s Laws: (three categories) The reasons why migrants moveThe distance they typically moveThe migrants groups characteristicsReasons for migrating:Push Factor: induces people to move out their present locationView their present location so negatively that they fell pushed awayPull Factor: induces people to move into a new locationView another place so attractively that they feel pulled toward to it
3 Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration 1) Most migrants go a short distance.2) People who migrate long distances tend to go to urban areas.3) People already living in rural areas are more likely to migrate than those in urban areas.4) Most migrants are adults. Women are more likely to migrate internally. Men are more likely to migrate internationally.Do these laws fit with the immigration to the United States in the early 20th century?
4 Push/Pull Factors Three major kinds of push/pull factors: Economic CulturalEnvironmentalUsually one of these factors emerges as the most importantRanking the relative importance of the three factors can be difficult and even controversial
5 Economic Push/Pull Factors Emigrating from few job opportunities to immigrating to a place where there are job opportunitiesArea that has valuable natural resourcesRapid population growth stimulates demand for service jobs and facilitiesRelative attractiveness
6 Cultural Push/Pull Factors Usually very compelling PUSH factors, forcing to people to emigrate from a countryForced International Migration has occurred because:Slavery: from Africa to the Western Hemisphere 18th and 19th centuriesPolitical instability: resulting from cultural diversity; new boundaries drawn segregated ethnic groups (caught on the “wrong” side of a boundary
7 RefugeesRefugees: people who have been forced to migrate from their homes and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group or political opinionFace difficulties:Have no home until another country agrees to allow them inImproving conditions allow them to return homeCamp out in tents, board in shelters, or lie down by the side of the road
8 Cultural Pull Factors Cultural Pull Factor: Political conditions: lure of freedomPeople attracted to the idea of democracy, freedom of choice in education, career and place of residenceDifficult to distinguish as a pull factor because it usually is teamed with the push from a totalitarian country
9 Environmental Push/Pull Factors PUSH: HazardousPULLED: physically attractive regionsIntervening Obstacles: an environmental or cultural feature that hinders migrationHistorical Obstacle: Gold Rush, no cars, planes or trains, could cross the Rockies or Great Plains by wagonModern Obstacle: Local Diversity in government and politics; need passport to legally emigrate from one country and a visa to legally immigrate to a new country
10 Distance of Migration Distance of Migration: Most migrants relocate a short distance and remain within the same countryLong-distance migrants to other countries head for major centers of economic activity
11 International Migration International Migration: permanent movement from one country to another“forced” migration: migrant has been compelled to move by cultural factors; cultural factors compel forced migration“voluntary” migration: migrant has chosen to move fro economic improvement; economic push and pull factors
12 Internal MigrationInternal Migration: permanent movement within the same countryUsually easier on people because they still find familiar languages, foods, broadcasts, literature, music and other social customsInvolve shorter distancesInterregional migration: movement from one region of a country to another; rural to urban areas in search of jobsIntraregional migration: movement within one region; movement within urban areas--- from an old neighborhood to a new neighborhood
13 Distance Decay “Distance decay of migration”: The greater the distance, the less likely there is to be interaction or influence.The lesser the distance, the more likely there is to be interaction or influence.In terms of migration, people migrate to places that are closerWhere do Cubans go that migrate to the United States?Are immigrating Asians to the United States more likely to go to the west coast or the east coast?
16 Zelinsky Zelinsky’s migration related to the DTM: Changes in society comparable to those in the DTMChange in migration pattern in society that results from economic and social change in the DTMInternational migration: stage 2-social changes, lower CBR and CDR in search of economic opportunitiesInternal migration: stage 3 and 4- from cities to surrounding suburbsStage 1 unlikely to migrate permanently to a new location, although high seasonal mobility in search of food
17 Migrants and Gender Migrants and Gender Most long-distance migrants are maleMost long-distance migrants are adult individuals rather than families with childrenTheory Changed today: gender pattern reversed in 1990s- women now constitute 55% of U.S. immigrantsMexican Immigrants: women account for over half of the undocumented immigrants in the U.S.Reflects the changing role of women in Mexican society: past- marry at young age and remain in the village to care for children; today: migrate to join husbands and brothers in U.S., mostly to seek jobs- poor economic conditions in Mexico
18 Family Status/Education of Migrants Family Status of migrants: young adults that were seeking work; very few elderly or young childrenToday: increasing amount of children under the age of 15 (increase of women=more children)Education: less likely to have high school diplomas than U.S. citizens; typical undocumented has attended school for less than 4 years, less than average American, but one more year than the average Mexican
19 “Typical” Mexican Immigrant Resonate from the interior states of MexicoMost have jobs in their villages- migrate to earn more moneyWork in agriculture, clothing factoriesMove from region to region in U.S. depending on seasonal changes…Make more money in U.S. and return to MexicoMoney leaves the U.S. economy…..