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Migration Notes.

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1 Migration Notes

2 Eight Great Modern Migrations
What is Modern? From 1450 on Generally the Renaissance


4 From Europe to North America
Religious freedom Puritan migration


6 From Iberia to South & Central America
Age of Exploration Treaty of Tordesillas Portugal got everything East of line, Spain got everything West Portugal occupied parts of Brazil (official language Portuguese) Spain everywhere else Economic migration


8 From British Isles to British Empire
To South Africa, Australia & New Zealand Beginning of the British Empire Economic migration What about India? Established trading posts in East Africa From there moved to India But not in huge numbers


10 From West Africa to Caribbean, S. America & American South
Jamaica (90% African descent) & Haiti (95%) S. America Coastal Brazil American South Smallest amount from West Africa came here


12 From India to British Empire
Slavery ends, British used Indians to harvest crops in British colonies “Indian Diaspora” Diaspora: From Greek for “to disperse” forced or voluntary dispersal of a people from their homeland to a new place Kenya S. Africa SE Asia Indonesia still has a small Hindu minority Fiji 2nd largest Ethnic group Guyana 28.4% Hindu Suriname Hindustani predominate ethnic group


14 From China to SE Asia & W. North America
“Chinese Diaspora” SE Asia Malaysia Persecuted Still 2nd highest ethnic group Singapore 76.8% of the population “Bamboo Network” A network of close-knit Chinese entrepreneurs with large corporate empires in southeast Asia N. America Seattle, San Francisco, & Vancouver


16 From E. North America to W. North America
Manifest Destiny The 19th century belief that Americans would eventually expand west to the Pacific Ocean What about Native Americans?


18 From W. Russia to E. Russia & Central Asia
Mirror image of N. America Russians settled Siberia like we settled W. North America What about native Siberians? Handled like Native Americans Poorer than other Russians Set up on reservations On the worst land


20 Movement Mobility – All types of movement from one location to another. Activity space – The space within which daily activity occurs; space allotted for a certain industry or activity. Emigration – Migration from a location Immigration – Migration to a new location Net migration – The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration. Emigration > Immigration = Net “out migration” Immigration > Emigration = Net “in migration”

21 Net Migration

22 Types of Migration Transnational Internal Chain Step
a.k.a. International Migration: Permanent movement from one country to another Internal Permanent movement within a particular country. Chain Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there. Step Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to town and city. e.g. Brazilian family moves from village to town and then finally Sao Paulo or Rio de Janeiro Seasonal Agriculture Transhumance : A seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures. Rural to Urban Permanent move from an agrarian lifestyle to a city lifestyle Source: Myras Osman

23 Types of Migration Choose to migrate Remember
Voluntary Migration Forced Migration Choose to migrate Remember Must be permanent If they return (guest workers, time-contract workers) they are not included in these numbers a.k.a. Involuntary migration Examples: Triangle Trade Atlantic Arm Native American relocation in Great Plains region of U.S.

24 Internal Migrations Two kinds
Intraregional Interregional Intraregional: people moving within one geographic region within a country Urbanization: move from rural to urban Suburbanization: move from urban to suburban Counterurbanization: move from urban to rural Interregional: people moving from one region to another within a country Can be international if culture is maintained

25 Interregional Examples

26 Ravenstein’s “Laws” of Migration
British sociologist (1834 – 1913) Laws of Migrations: Most migrants go only a short distance (internal) Distance Decay If they do move a long distance, they are more likely to travel to a big city (Gravity Model) Most migrations proceed step-by-step (Lee’s Model/Step Migration) Most migration is from rural to urban Every migration flow produces a counterflow Rural migrants move to city; city dwellers move to suburbs Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults Most international migrants are young males Changed with time; women comprise 40-60% of International migrants (55% of U.S. migrants)

27 Why? Most people migrate for ECONOMIC reasons Push and Pull factors
New jobs Better wages Escape poverty Find higher standard of living Push and Pull factors Push: Factor that induces people to leave old residences. Push us from one place Pull: Factor that induces people to move to a new location. Pull us to another

28 Global Migration Trends

29 Migration Patterns Intercontinental Interregional Intraregional
From one continent to another Interregional From one region of a country to another Intraregional Within one region of a country Rural to Urban

30 Migration Transition Model
Migration transition – Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition. Wilbur Zelinsky Stage 1 Migration for food, rather than permanent migration Stage 2 High population, technological improvements lead to out-migration Stage 3 & 4 Destination of international migrants from Stage 2 countries Most internal migration is intraregional Cities to suburbs

31 Global Migration Trends
3 largest migration flows Asia to Europe Asia to North America Latin America to North America Net In Migration: Europe, North America & Oceania Net Out Migration: Asia, Latin America & Africa

32 Case Study: Europe 1800-1920 1960-2000 CDR drops, population soars
Led to Europe being a source region for migrants “Net Out Migration” Other factors as well Agriculture: Irish potato famine Economic: Downturns in Europe; job opportunities in the U.S. Cultural: Religious persecution; network connections/chain migration Political: Instability, repression, lack of freedoms CBR, CDR drops, increase in elderly population (graying of Europe) Europe = destination for migrants, particularly from North Africa “Net In Migration” Results Labor shortages in Europe Labor surplus in N. Africa Overpopulated in N. Africa

33 U.S. Immigration Trends 3 Phases American colonies
European settlement, mainly British African slaves Nineteenth-Twentieth Century : Western Europe 1880s: Northern Europe Beginning of Twentieth Century: Southern & Eastern Europe 2nd Half of Twentieth Century Latin America & Asia Periods of Decline U.S. Civil War, 1893 Depression, WWI, Great Depression, WWII

34 20th C. U.S. Immigration Source: E. & S. Europe Push: Pull:
Early Late Source: Asia & Latin Am. Push: End of Cold War Poverty, lack of jobs Overpopulation (Stage 2) Religious/ethnic conflict Environmental problems Pull: U.S. shift to service-based industry Increased demand for low-wage jobs Expansion of ethnic economy Expansion of “agribusiness” High Tech Industry = need for software & hardware production Source: E. & S. Europe Push: Political Instability (WWI, Russian Rev.) Lack of jobs Religious persecution Overpopulation (Stage 2) Pull: U.S. Industrialization Increased demand for labor Specific industries: construction, transportation, city expansion



37 Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA): Public Law (Act of 11/6/86), which was passed in order to control and deter illegal immigration to the United States. Its major provisions stipulate legalization of undocumented aliens who had been continuously unlawfully present since 1982, legalization of certain agricultural workers, sanctions for employers who knowingly hire undocumented workers, and increased enforcement at U.S. borders.



40 Internal U.S. Migration

41 U.S. Internal Migration Regions: States: Regions: States: In Migration
Out Migration Regions: Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Northeast States: Arizona, California, Delaware, Florida, Maine, Maryland, New Hampshire, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia Regions: Great Plains, Midwest, Rust Belt, Deep South, Corn Belt States: Alabama, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Montana, New York, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah

42 Why? Economic Structure Friction of Distance Age Structure
Deindustrialization Shift to service/technology industries away from agriculture Suburbanization Friction of Distance Gravity Model (FoD tied to migration decisions) Telecommuting (FoD not as important as it used to be) Improved transportation/communication (FoD not as important) Age Structure Retirees moving to Sun Belt states, Florida Young professionals move to areas for job opportunities Young couples move to suburbs to provide lots of amenities

43 Internal Net Migration
Net Migration (County Scale)

44 Refugees, Asylum Seekers, IDPs
UN Definition: A person who has well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political group Asylum Seekers Someone who has applied for asylum and is waiting for a decision as to whether or not they are a refugee U.S. 2013: 84,343 Asylum claims Largest recipient of claims in the world 8th year in a row Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) Forcibly uprooted people displaced within their own country Source: UNHCR

45 Refugees UN reports 45.2 million refugees worldwide Two types
Numbers vary a lot Two types International refugees Crossed one or more international borders and are in a country other than their own Intranational Abandoned their homes but not their homeland IDPs Source: Alan Osborn

46 Refugees

47 IDPs 2010 Sudan Colombia Iraq 4.9 million 3.3 million 2.7 million
Source: Alan Osman

48 How do you identify a refugee?
UN Definition 3 General Characteristics Move with only what they can carry Begin journey by foot, bicycle, wagon or boat Lack official documents usually needed for international migration A person who has well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political group

49 U.S. Refugee Numbers Refugee Arrivals by Country of Nationality: Fiscal Years 2009 to 2011 Country of nationality Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Total , , , Burma , , , Bhutan , , , Iraq , , , Somalia , , , Cuba , , , Eritrea , , , Iran , , , DR Congo , , Ethiopia Afghanistan All other countries, including unknown , , ,

50 Examples Syrian Refugees
Civil Wars in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Angola, & Sudan Ethnic war between Hutu & Tutsi groups in Rwanda Has spilled over into DRC & Burundi Displacement due to ongoing dispute between Israelis & Palestinians Afghanistan Due to Taliban rule Soviet Invasion in s U.S. involvement during 2000s “Boat People” who fled Communist rule in Vietnam

51 Yugoslavia After the collapse of the former Yugoslavia, over 1 million were displaced Formed 5 independent countries Bosnia & Herzegovina Croatia Macedonia Serbia & Montenegro (which later split) Slovenia

52 Lee’s Model of Migration

53 Key Terms Push Factor: Factor that induces people to leave old residences. Pull Factor: Factor that induces people to move to a new location. Intervening Obstacle: An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration. Intervening Opportunity: A favorable environmental, economic or cultural feature that redirects migration.

54 Lee’s Model of Migration
Destination Source Region Push Factors 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Pull Factors 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Intervening Obstacle Migration

55 Push/Pull Factors Economic Environmental Cultural
Economic & Environmental push/pull factors are generally associated with voluntary migration. Cultural push/pull factors are generally associated with forced migration Note: people tend to move on excessively positive images/expectations that may not always be accurate

56 Push/Pull Factors Economic Environmental Cultural Economic
Push Factors Pull Factors Economic Poverty Few job opportunities Low wages Environmental Hazardous regions Adverse physical conditions Too little water/too much water Cultural Slavery Political instability Religious/ethnic persecution (refugees) Economic Higher standard of living More job opportunities Higher wages Environmental Stable climates Cultural Stable political conditions

57 Intervening Obstacle/Opportunity
Examples of Obstacles Environmental Mountains, rivers, bodies of water, etc. Cultural Passport to leave/visa to come in Economic Run out of money Examples of Opportunities New jobs along migration route Jobs created to divert rivers for irrigation (economic as well) Move into an ethnic enclave along route

58 Practical Application of Lee’s Model
Source Region Destination Region Return Anti-push factors + Push Factors - Intervening Obstacle Pull Factors + Anti-pull factors - Migration Few Arrive Many leave Intervening Opportunity Other Destination

59 Gravity Model

60 Ravenstein’s Laws Most migrants go only a short distance
Most migrations proceed step-by-step If they do move a long distance, they are more likely to travel to a big city Every migration flow produces a counterflow Most migration is from rural to urban Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults Most international migrants are young males

61 Background Interaction is proportional to the multiplication of the two populations divided by the distance between them (distance decay); based on Newton’s Law of Gravity

62 Example: Henderson 256,445 567,641 11 miles 7,632 48 miles 12,828,837

63 Henderson to Las Vegas 256,445 x 567,641 11²

64 Migration Models Migration Models

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