Presentation on theme: "Traumatism. Primary and secondary prevention. First aid for injuries."— Presentation transcript:
1 Traumatism. Primary and secondary prevention. First aid for injuries.
2 BONE, JOINT, MUSCLE INJURIES AND OPEN WOUNDS FracturesDislocationsSprainsStrainsOpen wounds
3 BONE, JOINT, MUSCLE INJURIES AND OPEN WOUNDS SignsDOTSDeformityOpen woundsTendernessSwelling
4 Bone and Joint Injuries Variety of injuries can occur to bones and jointsFrequently occur in accidents and fallsInjuries may occur by themselves or togetherExamples:FracturesDislocationsSprainsStrains
5 BONE, JOINT, MUSCLE INJURIES AND OPEN WOUNDS First Aid InterventionsRestIceCompressionElevation
6 Fracture A break in the bone 2 types Closed or simple fracture Injury to the boneNo external or open wound on the skinOpen or compound fractureBreak in the boneOpen wound on the skin
7 FractureSigns and symptoms vary and are not all present in every victimDeformitiesLimited motion or loss of motionPain and tenderness at fracture siteSwelling and discolorationProtrusion of bone ends through the skinVictim hears a bone break or snapVictim feel a grating sensation or abnormal movement
8 First aid care Objectives of first aid care Maintain respirations Treat for shockKeep the broken bone from moving with devices such as splints or slingsPrevent further injuryObtain medical help for the victim
9 DislocationOccurs when the end of a bone is displaced from a joint or moves out of its normal position within a jointFrequently accompanied by a tearing or stretching of ligaments, muscles or other soft tissue
10 Dislocation Signs and symptoms Deformity of joint or limb Limited or abnormal movementSwelling and discolorationPain and tendernessShortening or lengthening of affected limb
11 Dislocation. First aid care Basically the same as first aid for fracturesMake no attempt to reduce the dislocation or replace the bone in the jointImmobilize the affected part in the position in which it is found by using splints and/or slingsAvoid any movement of part because movement can lead to additional injury to nerves, blood vessels and other tissues in the areaObtain medical help immediately
12 Prevention Create a safe environment around your home. In children:Create a safe environment around your home.Pay careful attention to preventing falls by gating stairways and keeping windows closed and locked.Supervise children carefully. There is no substitute for close supervision no matter how safe the environment or situation appears to be.Teach children how to be safe and look out for themselves.In adults:Avoid falls by not standing on chairs, countertops, or other unstable objects.Eliminate throw rugs, especially for the elderly.Wear protective gear when participating in contact sports.For all age groups:Keep a first aid kit handy.Remove electrical cords from floor surfaces.Use handrails on staircases.Use nonskid mats on the bottom of the bathtubs and avoid bath oils.
13 Sprain Injury to the tissues surrounding a joint Usually occurs when part is forced beyond its normal range of motionLigaments, tendons and other issues are stretched or tornCommon sites for sprains are the ankles and wristsSigns and symptomsSwelling, pain and discolorationImpaired motion at times
14 SprainSprains frequently resemble fractures or dislocations and injury should be treated as a fracture if there is any doubtFirst aid for sprainApplication of cold to reduce swelling and painElevation of the affected partRest and limited or no movement of the affected partElastic bandage is used at times to provide supportObtain medical help if swelling is severe or if there is any question of a fracture
15 Prevention The following steps may lower your risk of a sprain: Wear protective footwear during activities that place stress on your ankle and other joints.Make sure that shoes fit your feet properly.Avoid high-heeled shoes.Always warm-up and stretch prior to exercise and sports.Avoid sports and activities for which you have not trained.
16 Strain Strain Overstretching of a muscle Signs and symptoms Caused by overexertion or by liftingFrequent site is the BackSigns and symptomsSudden painSwellingAnd/or bruising
17 Strain First aid Rest the muscle affected while providing support Bedrest with a backboard under the mattress is recommended for a strained backCold applications initially to reduce swellingWarm wet applications applied later because warmth relaxes the musclesObtain medical help for severe strains and all back injuries
20 HEAD INJURIES Brain injuries First Aid Concussion Contusion CompressionFirst AidAssess - CPRTreat for shockPositionPrevent body heat loss
21 PreventionAlways use safety equipment during activities that could result in head injury. These include seat belts, bicycle or motorcycle helmets, and hard hats.Obey traffic signals when riding a bicycle. Be predictable so that other drivers will be able to determine your course.Be visible. Do NOT ride a bicycle at night unless you wear bright, reflective clothing and have proper headlamps and flashers.Use age-appropriate car seats or boosters for babies and young children.Make sure that children have a safe area in which to play.Supervise children of any age.Do NOT drink and drive, and do NOT allow yourself to be driven by someone whom you know or suspect has been drinking alcohol or is otherwise impaired.
22 SPINAL INJURIES First Aid Responsive victim Unresponsive victim ABCDE Avoid unnecessary movementTreat for shock
23 Prevention Wear seat belts. Do not drink and drive. Do not dive into pools, lakes, rivers, and other bodies of water, particularly if you cannot determine the depth of the water or if the water is not clear.Do not tackle or dive into a person with your head
24 CHEST INJURIESInjuries to the chest wallOpenClosedLung injury
25 CHEST INJURIES Rib fracture Flail chest First Aid ABCDE Treat Cause Support chest wallTreat for shock
26 CHEST INJURIES Hemothorax Pneumothorax First Aid ABCDE Treat Cause Seal the woundTreat for shockPosition