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Traumatism. Primary and secondary prevention. First aid for injuries.

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Presentation on theme: "Traumatism. Primary and secondary prevention. First aid for injuries."— Presentation transcript:

1 Traumatism. Primary and secondary prevention. First aid for injuries.

Fractures Dislocations Sprains Strains Open wounds

Signs DOTS Deformity Open wounds Tenderness Swelling

4 Bone and Joint Injuries
Variety of injuries can occur to bones and joints Frequently occur in accidents and falls Injuries may occur by themselves or together Examples: Fractures Dislocations Sprains Strains

First Aid Interventions Rest Ice Compression Elevation

6 Fracture A break in the bone 2 types Closed or simple fracture
Injury to the bone No external or open wound on the skin Open or compound fracture Break in the bone Open wound on the skin

7 Fracture Signs and symptoms vary and are not all present in every victim Deformities Limited motion or loss of motion Pain and tenderness at fracture site Swelling and discoloration Protrusion of bone ends through the skin Victim hears a bone break or snap Victim feel a grating sensation or abnormal movement

8 First aid care Objectives of first aid care Maintain respirations
Treat for shock Keep the broken bone from moving with devices such as splints or slings Prevent further injury Obtain medical help for the victim

9 Dislocation Occurs when the end of a bone is displaced from a joint or moves out of its normal position within a joint Frequently accompanied by a tearing or stretching of ligaments, muscles or other soft tissue

10 Dislocation Signs and symptoms Deformity of joint or limb
Limited or abnormal movement Swelling and discoloration Pain and tenderness Shortening or lengthening of affected limb

11 Dislocation. First aid care
Basically the same as first aid for fractures Make no attempt to reduce the dislocation or replace the bone in the joint Immobilize the affected part in the position in which it is found by using splints and/or slings Avoid any movement of part because movement can lead to additional injury to nerves, blood vessels and other tissues in the area Obtain medical help immediately

12 Prevention Create a safe environment around your home.
In children: Create a safe environment around your home. Pay careful attention to preventing falls by gating stairways and keeping windows closed and locked. Supervise children carefully. There is no substitute for close supervision no matter how safe the environment or situation appears to be. Teach children how to be safe and look out for themselves. In adults: Avoid falls by not standing on chairs, countertops, or other unstable objects. Eliminate throw rugs, especially for the elderly. Wear protective gear when participating in contact sports. For all age groups: Keep a first aid kit handy. Remove electrical cords from floor surfaces. Use handrails on staircases. Use nonskid mats on the bottom of the bathtubs and avoid bath oils.

13 Sprain Injury to the tissues surrounding a joint
Usually occurs when part is forced beyond its normal range of motion Ligaments, tendons and other issues are stretched or torn Common sites for sprains are the ankles and wrists Signs and symptoms Swelling, pain and discoloration Impaired motion at times

14 Sprain Sprains frequently resemble fractures or dislocations and injury should be treated as a fracture if there is any doubt First aid for sprain Application of cold to reduce swelling and pain Elevation of the affected part Rest and limited or no movement of the affected part Elastic bandage is used at times to provide support Obtain medical help if swelling is severe or if there is any question of a fracture

15 Prevention The following steps may lower your risk of a sprain:
Wear protective footwear during activities that place stress on your ankle and other joints. Make sure that shoes fit your feet properly. Avoid high-heeled shoes. Always warm-up and stretch prior to exercise and sports. Avoid sports and activities for which you have not trained.

16 Strain Strain Overstretching of a muscle Signs and symptoms
Caused by overexertion or by lifting Frequent site is the Back Signs and symptoms Sudden pain Swelling And/or bruising

17 Strain First aid Rest the muscle affected while providing support
Bedrest with a backboard under the mattress is recommended for a strained back Cold applications initially to reduce swelling Warm wet applications applied later because warmth relaxes the muscles Obtain medical help for severe strains and all back injuries

18 HEAD INJURIES Wounds Fractures Brain injuries

19 HEAD INJURIES Wounds Scalp Facial

20 HEAD INJURIES Brain injuries First Aid Concussion Contusion
Compression First Aid Assess - CPR Treat for shock Position Prevent body heat loss

21 Prevention Always use safety equipment during activities that could result in head injury. These include seat belts, bicycle or motorcycle helmets, and hard hats. Obey traffic signals when riding a bicycle. Be predictable so that other drivers will be able to determine your course. Be visible. Do NOT ride a bicycle at night unless you wear bright, reflective clothing and have proper headlamps and flashers. Use age-appropriate car seats or boosters for babies and young children. Make sure that children have a safe area in which to play. Supervise children of any age. Do NOT drink and drive, and do NOT allow yourself to be driven by someone whom you know or suspect has been drinking alcohol or is otherwise impaired.

22 SPINAL INJURIES First Aid Responsive victim Unresponsive victim ABCDE
Avoid unnecessary movement Treat for shock

23 Prevention Wear seat belts. Do not drink and drive.
Do not dive into pools, lakes, rivers, and other bodies of water, particularly if you cannot determine the depth of the water or if the water is not clear. Do not tackle or dive into a person with your head

24 CHEST INJURIES Injuries to the chest wall Open Closed Lung injury

25 CHEST INJURIES Rib fracture Flail chest First Aid ABCDE Treat Cause
Support chest wall Treat for shock

26 CHEST INJURIES Hemothorax Pneumothorax First Aid ABCDE Treat Cause
Seal the wound Treat for shock Position

27 ABDOMINAL INJURIES Closed injuries Open injuries

28 ABDOMINAL INJURIES Closed injuries First Aid Blow to the abdomen ABCDE
Treat for shock Blow to the abdomen

29 ABDOMINAL INJURIES Open injuries First Aid ABCDE Treat Cause
Penetrating wound Protruding organs First Aid ABCDE Treat Cause dressing Treat for shock

30 BURNS First degree Second degree Third degree Thermal Chemical
Electrical First degree Second degree Third degree 30

31 BURNS ) 31

32 First Aid Thermal Stop burning ABCDE Treat Cause Treat for shock
Cooling Dressing Treat for shock Position Prevent body heat loss 32

33 First Aid Chemical ABCDE Treat Cause Treat for shock Remove chemicals
Dressing Treat for shock Position Prevent body heat loss 33

34 First Aid Electrical Safety!!! Assess - CPR Treat Cause
Cooling Dressing Treat for shock Position Prevent body heat loss Risk VF cardiac arrest Respiratory arrest Muscle spasm 34

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