Presentation on theme: "Injuries and First Aid The aim of this lesson is to learn about common sporting injuries and prevention techniques."— Presentation transcript:
Injuries and First Aid The aim of this lesson is to learn about common sporting injuries and prevention techniques
Two Types of Sports Injury Two Types of Sports Injury Acute Injuries: are the result of a sudden stress on the body. For example, a dislocated shoulder caused by a tackle in rugby. Chronic or Overuse Injuries: are caused by over training, insufficient recover time, poor technique and badly designed footwear or equipment.
How to Avoid Chronic Injuries Develop correct technique: Poor long distance running technique leads to back injuries. Choose kit and equipment carefully, especially footwear. especially footwear. Allow enough time for full recovery between training sessions and/or events. Follow heavy training days with light days. As your body adapts to training it recovers, if you don’t recover you’ll gain no training adaptation.Follow heavy training days with light days. As your body adapts to training it recovers, if you don’t recover you’ll gain no training adaptation.
How to Avoid Acute Injuries Consider the event itself: Make sure you play at the right level for you. It can be dangerous to play against people who are bigger,stronger or more skilful. Know the rules of the sport and obey them. They were developed to protect you as well as test your skill.Know the rules of the sport and obey them. They were developed to protect you as well as test your skill. 1.Pay attention to advice or warnings given by coaches, referees and other officials.
HEAD INJURIES You should place the person in the coma position making sure they can breathe easily – check nose and mouth for blockages – if they are not breathing you will need to follow CPR.
Bone and Joint Injuries Fractured bones: A fracture is a break or crack in a bone. In a SIMPLE or CLOSED fracture the skin is not broken. In an OPEN or COMPOUND fracture the skin is damaged too. Signs and Symptoms: The casualty may have heard or felt a snap. Pain and tenderness around the injury. The casualty cant move the part normally. Swelling and bruising occur. The limb may look deformed and twisted.
Types of Fractures There are several types of fracture, each differing due to the age of the bone and the type of impact, blow or pressure placed on it. Greenstick: A pressure or impact buckles or bends a bone but only partially breaks it. This fracture is common in the developing bones of young children, whose bones are quite springy.
Closed fractures are more common and mean that the skin isn't broken Open fractures involve the broken end of the bone coming through the skin All fractures usually cause bruising and swelling because of associated damage to surrounding blood vessels They are also very painful because nerves within the bone are damaged A stress fracture is a thin crack in a bone, which can be caused by overuse and continuous stress to the bone. These are common in the legs of runners and soldiers. Stress fractures are the only form of chronic bone injury, all other fractures are acute Any suspected fracture should be x-rayed x-rayed
SOFT TISSUE INJURIES Soft tissue is basically anything that isn't bone! So muscles, ligaments, tendons, skin, cartilage etc. Soft tissue injuries can be either chronic or acute. They can also be open or closed Open Open injuries are when the skin is broken through cuts, grazes etc Closed Closed injuries happen when the skin stays intact, and the injury is underneath the skin. EXAMPLES Sprains - ligament damage. Ligaments attach bones to bones and keep a joint together. Sprains can occur as a result of a violent twisting or side-ways movement to the joint (such as when you roll the ankle over and sprain it) joint
SOFT TISSUE INJURIES (CONT) Strains - muscle damage. These are also known as pulled muscles and can vary in severity with some only causing minor damage and other tearing the whole muscle (a rupture)! These are usually caused by overstretching. The hamstrings are the most common example Bruising - bleeding underneath the skin. This usually happens as a result of an impact such as being hit with a cricket ball
SOFT TISSUE INJURIES (CONT) Dislocations - a bone is pulled away from the normal joint position. The most common example is the shoulder, where the humerus (arm bone) is pulled out of the socket. This can cause damage to the surrounding soft tissues and must be scanned with an MRI before being repositioned bone
SOFT TISSUE INJURIES (CONT) Cartilage tears - cartilage within the knee is most commonly injured. This happens through violent twisting or impacts which force the knee out of line
RICE TREATMENT Standard treatment for soft tissue injuries is R - REST I - ICE C - COMPRESSION E - ELEVATION
SHOCK 2 Types of shock – Primary shock – faintness which comes on straight after an emotional or traumatic event – passes quite quickly with reassurance an keeping warm. True shock – far more serious. This comes about after a serious injury e.g. a bad cut or fracture. The person will be close to collapse, grey in colour and probably shaking. It is essential that they are treated in hospital. Call an ambulance immediately.
GENERAL RULES TO FOLLOW Do not move the person unless you are sure what the injury is, If they are unconscious or have been you must phone an ambulance as they must be checked. Look at the damaged area and see if there are any signs of injury – if it is obvious, cuts or wounds then ask if they can move the area of injury and stop the bleeding- by pressure with a clean cloth or bandage. If there is no cut talk to the person? – does it hurt, can you move it? Then look for swellings, misshapen areas or tenderness.
If they feel able to stand and move on their own then they should decide if they are able to continue – any doubts at all Stop. Playing on can really aggravate what was a non serious injury. If you have had problems going through these stages then you must get expert help straight away – big difference between first aid and medical treatment.
Key Terms Stress fractures – a break in the bone caused by repeated application of a heavy load or constant pounding on a surface, such as running Tennis Elbow – a painful injury or inflammation of the tendon attached to the elbow joint Dilated – enlarged, expanded or widened. Sprains – the overstretching or tearing of ligaments at a joint Strains – the overstretching of a muscle, rather than a joint.