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Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Module 5. 2 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Skeletal system Fractures Dislocation Sprain and strains.

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Presentation on theme: "Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Module 5. 2 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Skeletal system Fractures Dislocation Sprain and strains."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Module 5

2 2 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Skeletal system Fractures Dislocation Sprain and strains

3 3 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries The Skeletal System Femur Tibia Fibula

4 4 Function Body framework Support muscles, blood vessels, and nerves Protects vital organs such as heart, lungs, and the brain Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries

5 5 Fracture Break or crack in a bone Category Closed fracture Skin is not broken Open fracture Bone is exposed at the surface of skin

6 6 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Fracture Types Simple fracture Bone is broken Compound fracture Bone and tissue damage Complicated fracture Broken bone damage organ

7 7 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Fracture Signs and symptoms Deformity, swelling and bruise on the fractured site Pain, and difficulty in moving Shortening, bending, or limb twisted Coarse grating heard or felt at bone ends Loss of function An open wound

8 8 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Fracture First aid treatment Instruct the casualty not to move Check for bleeding Check for shock Reassure the casualty Immobilize and support the fracture Immobilization Use of bandages Use of splints Combination of the above

9 9 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Fracture Monitoring after immobilization Check fingers or toes for discoloration Pulse check Arrange for transport to medical facilities Precaution Do not allow the casualty to eat, drink or smoke. Do not move the casualty until the affected part is immobilized unless there is immediate danger. Do not press down directly on the protruding bone end

10 10 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Fractured Rib Cage Specific signs and symptoms Pain on taking a deep breath, cough or laugh Shallow breathing Open wound over fracture, sucking sound heard in the chest cavity

11 11 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Fractured Rib Cage Specific first aid treatment Penetrating chest wound, seal wound Support the arm on the affected site with an elevation sling Precaution Place casualty in the recovery position on his injured site allowing the uninjured side for full capacity breathing

12 12 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Spinal Injury Causes Falling from a height Hitting the bottom of a shallow pool through diving Thrown from a motorbike or horse Sudden slowing in a motor vehicle Heavy object falling across the back Injury to the face or the head

13 13 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Spinal Injury Signs and symptoms Deformity in the normal curvature of the spine Tenderness over the skin of the spine Loss of control over limbs, movement maybe weak or absent Loss of sensation Abnormal sensation such as tingling or burning Loss of bladder or bowel function Breathing difficulties

14 14 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Spinal Injury Treatment Reassure casualty, instruct not to move Steady the affected part by supporting the head No unnecessary movement Apply jaw-thrust for unconscious casualty to open the airway Call for ambulance Monitor pulse, breathing and level of response

15 15 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Spinal Injury Precaution Adopt log-roll technique if the casualty has to be moved Do not move the casualty from his original position unless there is immediate danger (To demonstrate log-roll technique)

16 16 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Immobilization Fracture of radius & ulnaInjured elbowFracture of Humerus Instructor to demonstrate, participants to practice

17 17 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Immobilization Immobilization of the lower limb Instructor to demonstrate, participants to practice

18 18 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Immobilization Fracture of Femur

19 19 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Immobilization Fracture of Knee-cap

20 20 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Immobilization Fracture of Bones of foot Fracture of Bones of hand

21 21 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Immobilization Splintless method of immobilization Elbow Fracture (original position) Collar Bone Fracture Forearm Fracture

22 22 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Immobilization Improvisation In the absence of triangular bandage any elongated item can be used e.g cloth,belts. Precaution Monitor the blood circulation regularly at the extremities of limbs i.e toes and thumb. Readjust the bandage when there is indication of increased tightness.

23 23 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Joints Place at which one bone meets another Joined by ligaments Dislocated joint Joint injury in which the bones are partially or completely pulled out of position Cause Violent muscle contraction Violent twisting

24 24 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Dislocation Signs and symptoms Pain Limited movement Shortening, bending or twisting of the area Treatment Immobilize the affected area Support the affected area after it has been immobilized Check for pulse and respiration Check for circulation at the fingers or toes every 10 mins

25 25 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Dislocation Precaution Do not reposition a dislocated bone into it’s socket, it may cause more injury Do not move the affected part before immobilization Do not allow the casualty to eat and drink

26 26 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Sprains and Strains A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibres of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching of some part of the musculature No dislocation is involved in sprains and strains

27 27 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Sprains and Strains Signs and symptoms Limited movement in the joints Pain and tenderness Swelling and bruising

28 28 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Sprains and Strains Treatment RICE Rest Ice (<10 mins) Compression Elevation

29 29 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Sprains and Strains Precaution Ice should be wrapped in a cloth before applying and should not exceed more than 10 minutes at one application Check circulation every 10 minutes after bandage had been applied

30 The End Module 5 Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries For training purpose only. Not for sale


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