L ESSON 1 – E FFECTS OF STRESS Vocabulary Stress Perception Stressor Psychosomatic response Chronic stress
CONTINUED Stress in Your Life How much stress you feel depends on your perception of events that cause stress How do you manage? Change the way you see the react to the events that cause stress. Reacting to Stress Stress can have positive and negative effects. How? Positive – can help motivate you to reach your goals Negative – For example, losing sleep after an argument with a friend We must learn to talk about our stressors
CONTINUED What Causes Stress? Five General Categories of Stressors Biological stressors – illness, disabilities, or injuries Environmental stressors – poverty, pollution, or natural disasters Personal Behavior stressors – alcohol, tobacco, drugs, and lack of physical activity Thinking stressors – how to perceive a situation or how it affects you Life Situation stressors – death in the family, parents divorced, trouble with friends How can your perception of an event affect the amount of stress you feel?
CONTINUED The Body’s Stress Response Give an example of your body reacting to stress. Which 2 body systems are active during the body’s response to stress? Nervous system Endocrine system Involuntary or automatic Stage 1 – Alarm Mind and body go on high alert (fight or flight) Stage 2 – Resistance Body adapts to the stressor and you decide to either “fight or flight” Fight = ability to resist a physical challenge or attack may be enhanced
CONTINUED Flight = you may be able to run faster and farther than normal in order to escape danger Stage 3 – Fatigue A tired feeling takes over your body Ability to manage stress is low Physical Fatigue – muscle work vigorously for long periods often leading to soreness and pain Psychological Fatigue – can result from constant worry, overwork, and depression Pathological Fatigue – tiredness brought on by overworking the body’s defenses in fighting disease Did You Know? (page201)
CONTINUED Stress and Your Health Physical Effects Headache – headache caused by stress is the most common type of headache Asthma – stress can trigger asthma, it is important to discover what sets off your attacks. High Blood Pressure – prolonged stress can cause an increase in a person’s level of cholesterol, which leads to high blood pressure Weakened Immune System – can reduce the body’s ability to fight disease
M ENTAL / EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL EFFECTS Difficulty concentrating – hard to focus, negative self-talk and telling yourself that failure is inevitable Mood swings – feeling happy one minute and sad the next, teens may experience as a result of 1. hormonal changes 2. social and academic pressure Emotional shifts may strain relationships Risk of substance abuse – feel as if the drug helps relieve stress Actually increases stress and leads to bigger problems
T AKING CONTROL OF CHRONIC STRESS The body’s reaction to chronic stress is less intense that a fight or flight response Can last longer, symptoms include: upset stomach, headache, insomnia, change in appetite, and feeling anxious Strategies for controlling the effects of stress: Engage in physical activity – physical activities improve your body’s health and affect brain chemistry (helps to calm you down) Look for support – they know how you feel, hang out and talk about what is bothering you Hobby or Activity – learn something new and make new friends Avoid alcohol and drugs – can lead to addiction and many other problems
S TRESS MANAGEMENT SKILLS ( NOT IN BOOK ) Stress management skills - techniques used to cope with the harmful effects of stress 2 types of stress management skills – (1) - Type of skill that focuses on doing something about the cause of stress (2) - Type of skill that focuses on keeping the body healthy and relieving anxiety Stress management skills – Use responsible decision making skills. When you apply the steps in the model to a difficult situation, you will feel less anxious and more in control. Get plenty of rest and sleep. Without rest and sleep you will find it difficult to reduce stress levels.
S TRESS MANAGEMENT SKILLS Participate in physical activities. Physical activity relieves tension by providing an outlet for the energy that builds up with stress. Use a time management plan. If you are over whelmed by the number of tasks to complete in a day, try keeping a calendar. Tackle the most difficult tasks first. Write in a journal. Writing is a healthful way to express your feelings. Develop friendships. When you are with friends you can share your feeling without being judged. Talk with parents and other trusted adults. They can offer suggestions based on their own life experiences.
S TRESS MANAGEMENT SKILLS Help others. Helping others can give you a different outlook on a situation. Keep a sense of humor. A good laugh is a positive way to manage stress.
T EEN D EPRESSION AND ANXIETY Depression affects people of all ages and ethnic background. About 2% of school aged children and 8% of adolescents meet the criteria for depression. 1 in 5 teens will suffer from depression by the time they reach adulthood. Characteristics of Depression Persistent sadness Loss of pleasure and interest in activities once enjoyed Fatigue or loss of energy Restlessness, irritability Sleep disturbances
T EEN DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY Weight or appetite changes Lack of concentration Feelings of worthlessness, hopelessness, and low self – esteem Thoughts or expressions of suicide or death Causes In childhood – boys and girls are equally at risk During adolescence – girls are twice as likely as boys to develop depression Inability to cope with a life crisis. Some teens are unable to get through life crises that most teens can cope with.
T EEN DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY Genetic predisposition. The inheritance of genes that increase the likelihood of developing a condition is called genetic predisposition. Traumatic family events. Teens who have experienced traumatic family events are at an increased risk for depression. Physical illness. Teens who have certain physical illnesses may experience depression. Alcohol or other drug use. – Teens who drink alcohol or take drugs have a much higher rates of depression.
T EEN DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY Treatments for Depression Depression is a treatable disease, and more than 80% of individuals who receive treatment experience significant improvement. Fewer than ½ of people with depression seek help. Physical examination – poor health status. If you are sick you are at risk of becoming depressed. Therapy – young people who are depressed may benefit from therapy. Cognitive behavior therapy – this therapy helps a person modify behavior and a person’s way of thinking. Medication – An antidepressant is a drug used to relieve depression. Teens must learn to become resilient. Resiliency is the ability to adapt effectively and recover from disappointment, difficulty, or crisis.