2Lesson 1: effects of stress Stress- is the reaction of the body and mind to everyday challenges and demands.How much stress you feel depends on your perception (the act of becoming aware through the senses).Stress can be both positive and negative in its effects.What are some positive effects of stress? Examples?What are some negative effects of stress? Examples?
3What causes stress??? Stressor- is anything that causes stress. People EXAMPLES:PeopleObjectsPlacesEventsCertain situationsMore specifically, psychologists have identified five general categories of stressors…
4Categories of stressors: Biological- illness, disabilities, or injuriesEnvironmental: poverty, pollution, noise, natural disastersCognitive (thinking)- the way you perceive a situation or how it affects you and your worldPersonal behavior- tobacco, alcohol, drugs, lack of physical activityLife situations- death of a family member/friend/pet, troubled relationshipsPast experiences play a large role in how you perceive these stressors. (Positive vs. Negative)
5The body’s stress response: the nervous system and endocrine system are active during this time and your response is largely involuntary, or automaticStage 1: ALARMThe body and mind go on high alert- “Fight or Flight” response.Physical Symptoms:Pupil dilationIncrease perspirationFaster heart rate and pulseRise in blood pressureFaster respiration rateNarrowing of arteries to internal organs and skinIncrease blood flow to muscles and brainIncrease in muscle tensionRelease of blood sugar, fats, and cholesterol
6The body’s stress response: Stage 2: ResistanceDuring this stage your body adapts to the rush created by alarm and reacts to the stressorThis is the stage that you actually “fight” or “flight”You are briefly able to perform at a higher level of enduranceThe resistance stage is why people in extremely high-stress situations have been known to accomplish incredible feats.
7The body’s stress response: Stage 3: FatigueProlonged exposure to stress causes the body to lose it’s ability to adapt to the situation.A tired feeling takes over the body and lowers your level of activity.3 Types of fatigue:Physical-muscles work vigorously for long periods, often leads to soreness and painPsychological-from constant worry, overwork, depression, boredom, or feeling overwhelmed.Pathological-tiredness brought on by overworking the body’s defense in fighting illness. Flu, poor nutrition, use of drugs and alcohol.
8Physical Effects of Stress: Psychosomatic Response: a physical reaction that results from stress rather than from an injury or illness.HeadacheAsthmaHigh Blood PressureWeakened Immune System
9Mental/Emotional and Social Effects of Stress: Difficulty ConcentratingMood SwingsRisks of Substance Abuse
10Taking Control of Chronic Stress: Stress that is associated with long-term problems that are beyond a person’s control.ENGAGE IN Physical ActivityLook for support- friends, familyFind a hobby or activity that relaxes youAvoid harmful substances-tobacco, alcohol, other drugs.
11Lesson 2: managing stress Identify your personal stressors:Life events- getting a driver’s license; graduation; moving/relocating; addition of new family members; major illness; divorce/ separationPhysical stressors- pollution, excessive noise, physical injury, lack of rest, drug use, excessive dieting or exerciseDaily hassles- time pressures, too many responsibilities, deadlines, conflicts with fellow students
12Ways to manage stress:Sometimes you can manage stress by changing your perception. Try looking at the situation as a learning experience.Plan ahead- this better prepares you for unexpected changes.Get adequate sleep-if not it can cause stress by interfering with schoolwork, athletics, and personal relationships.Get regular physical activity-burns off excess nervous energy, causing you to feel more relaxed.Eat nutritious food- eat regular meals, limit “comfort” foods, limit caffeine (causes blood pressure to rise)Avoid tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs
13Stress management techniques: Stress management skills- skills that help an individual handle stress in a healthful, effective way.Redirect your energy-work on a creative project, go for a jogRelax and laugh-deep breathing, think happy thoughts, stretching, laughing out loud.Keep a positive outlook-the way you think often determines how you feel.Seek out support- confide in someone you trust, parent, guardian, sibling, teacher, or close friendExpress yourself-share your feelings, set/share goals.
14Lesson 3: anxiety and teen depression Anxiety- the condition of feeling uneasy or worried about what may happen.Can be both positive (help you to work harder) and negative (cause you to make mistakes).Symptoms:Feelings of fear or dreadPerspiration, trembling, restlessness, or muscle tensionRapid heart rate, lightheadedness, or shortness of breathIs perfectionism a form of anxiety? i.e. grades, sports, unrealistic expectations
15Strategies for coping with anxiety: Redirect your energyRelaxation exercises: meditation, breathingEngage in physical activityGet support from family and friendsSome choose to “escape” by using drugs or alcohol. This only provides a temporary and false sense of relaxation. THE PROBLEM IS STILL THERE! This also causes more problems making it harder for you to function properly.
16What is depression?Everyone experiences the occasional sad mood that lasts a few days. They are natural feelings that can be managed by:Writing in a private journalDraw, dance, or engage in some other creative activityTalk about your feelings with your family or friendsDo something nice for someone else. This takes the focus away from you and your feelings.What do you choose to do when managing general sadness?
17Depression- a prolonged feeling of helplessness, hopelessness, and sadness. Much stronger that the occasional sad mood. Not easily managed.Two types of depression depending on the cause of the feeling and the length of time it lasts.Reactive DepressionMajor/Clinical Depression
182 types of depression: Reactive depression: Major/Clinical depression: A response to a stressful event (death of a friend).Lasts longer than a case of the “blues”.Most times it eventually goes away as the person finds a way to manage his or her response to the event.Major/Clinical depression:A medical condition that requires treatment.Much more severe and last much longer than reactive depression.May develop from reactive depression.May be the result of a chemical imbalance in the brain or genetic tendency.
19Symptoms of teen depression: Many teens who are suffering from depression do not act sad or seem outwardly different to their family or friends.Other symptoms include:Irritable or restless mood.Withdrawal from friends and activities that were once important or enjoyable.Change in appetite or weight.Feelings of guilt or worthlessness.A sense of hopelessness.Feeling a few of these symptoms occasionally is “normal”. It is NOT normal to experience several of them at the same time for two weeks or more. Also, if depression causes a person to start using drugs or to have thoughts of suicide, professional help is needed.
20Getting help: For mild forms of anxiety and depression help includes: TALKING WITH SUPPORTIVE PEOPLEGETTING MORE PHYSICAL ACTIVITYVOLUNTEER YOUR TIME TO HELP OTHERSBoth anxiety and depression are very treatable. Talk to a parent or other trusted adult, and seek help from a counselor, school psychologist, or other health care professional.
21LESSON 4: BEING A RESILIENT TEEN Resiliency- the ability to adapt effectively and recover from disappointment, difficulty, or crisis.Resilient people are able to handle adversity in healthy ways and achieve long-term success in spite of negative circumstances.
22Factors that affect resiliency: External Factors:Your familyYour school/ communityYour peersYou have little control over these factors but you can work to strengthen them.Internal Factors:Your AttitudeYour BehaviorCommitment to learningPositive ValuesSocial CompetencyPositive IdentityYou have control over Internal factors. Making a conscious effort to strengthen these factors will increase your resiliency and improve your mental/emotional health!
23Building resiliency by strengthening your protective factors: Protective factors- conditions that shield individuals from the negative consequences of exposure to risk.Actions you can take are:Become involved with after school activities.Make a commitment to learning by reading for pleasure at least three hours a week.Stand up for your beliefs, and refuse to act against your values.Be honest with yourself and others.Resist negative peer pressure, and avoid dangerous situations.Learn about people from other cultures or ethnic backgrounds.Develop a sense of purpose.Develop a positive outlook about YOUR future.