Presentation on theme: "MOTIVATION. Encouraging people to take more initiative and interest in the work assigned. Motivation means a process of stimulating people to action to."— Presentation transcript:
Encouraging people to take more initiative and interest in the work assigned. Motivation means a process of stimulating people to action to accomplish the desired goals.
Characteristics / Features of Motivation Psychological process Initiated by managers Continuous activity Goal oriented and action oriented Broad Concept (Needs, human relations, satisfaction of employees)
Essence of management process Beneficial to employees and management Varied measures available for motivation Motivation is different from satisfaction Related to a person in totality
Need & Importance of Motivation 1)Securing employee cooperation 2)Stimulating employees 3)Maintaining human relations 4)Raising productivity and efficiency 5)Raising morale
Essential of a Sound Motivational Plan Simplicity Flexibility Economical Comprehensive Productive
Advantages of Motivation Advantages to Employers – 1)Better Cooperation from employees Increase in the efficiency and productivity of employees Reduction in wastages and industrial accidents Reduction in employee turn over and absenteeism Improving employee morale Prompt achievement of business objectives Developing positive attitude towards employees Availability of right type of employee
Advantages to Employee Employees get the benefit of financial and non-financial incentives. Job Security and job satisfaction Opportunity to participate in management Durability in Employment Improvement in knowledge and skills Fulfillment of basic needs
Factors of motivating Employees ☺ Attractove Salary / Wages & Allowances ☺ High rate of bonus ☺ Liberal monetary incentives ☺Allowances such as overtime allowances, medical allowance, leave and travel allowances, house rent, educational and re-creation allowances and so on. ☺ Special incentives. Monetary Factors
Factors of motivating Employees Non-monetary Factors ☺Job-security and job enrichment ☺ Fair treatment to employees ☺ Recognition of good work ☺Encouragement for self-development and career development ☺Delegation of authority to subordinates ☺Congenial working conditions
☺ Helpful attitude of management ☺ Fair opportunity of promotion ☺ Labour participation in management ☺ Designation and status
Traditional Modern Theories Theories I) ‘Be Strong’ Theory I) Maslow’s Theory II) Efforts and Rewards Theory II) Mc Gregor’s Theory III) Monastic Theory III) Herzberg’s Theory IV) Carrot & Stick Theory IV) Mcclelland’s Theory V) Paternalistic Theory V) Vroom’s Theory VII) Equity Theory Theory of Motivation
Be Strong Theory- Fear & Punishment Theory Used by the managers who become aggressive and authoritarian. Theory believes that employees would work efficiently if they are driven by fear and Punishment.
Military rule – DO OR DIE Efforts & Rewards Theory (Taylor) Managers should establish the standards of performance and note the behavior of employees. This will enable them to determine rewards and penalties. Monastic Theory – This theory assumes that people work for money only. Increased effort will provide increased wages which will further motivate the workers to higher effort.
Carrot & Stick – Reward & Punishment who perform the task well are given rewards in the form of promotion, hike in pay, bonus, etc. and those who fare poorly are like punished in the form of demotion, transfer, termination, etc. Theory states that rewards alone are not adequate.
Paternalistic Theory – Managers to be kind and generous toward employees and in return, they expected respect, loyalty and durability from the employees.
MASLOW – 1943 (NEED HIERARCHY THEORY) Physiological Needs (Biological need) can’t be postponed for long. Security / Safety Needs – Security of job, pension for old age and insurance cover for life, comes after physiological needs. Social needs – Affiliates with group and expects love, affection and recognition. This is called as basic social need of an individual. Esteem need – Personal ego – need to have prestigious position. The organization can satisfy this need by giving recognition to the good work.
Self Actualization - At this level person seeks challenging work assignments for creativity and opportunities for personal growth and advancements. A Self-actualized person is creative and independent.
MCGREGORS THEORY OF X & THEORY OF Y Theory X is static rigid, conservative and pessimistic and believe that average human being has an inherent dislike for work. Most people should be forced, controlled, directed or threatened with punishment to achieve organizational objectives. People want security of job and income. People want to avoid responsibility. People want lack creativity and do not use their intellectual potentialities.
MCGREGORS THEORY OF X & THEORY OF Y Theory Y - Emerging viewpoint about people. Average human learns to work / people want relative freedom / exercise self-control and self direction to achieve organizational objective / seek responsibility partially use their intellectual potentiality.
HERZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY OF MOTIVATION – based on two factor Maintenance and Motivating Factors Maintenance factor prevent dissatisfaction only not motivating.
Hygiene FactorsMotivators Company Policies and administration Achievement SupervisionRecognition for Working Conditions Accomplishment Interpersonal Relations Increased Responsibility Opportunity for growth Challenging Work Salary Job Security Status Personal life
Mcclelland Theory – need for achievement / need for power and need for affiliation Managers motivated by need for achievement are goal oriented. Strong power need try to dominate, influence and control others Need for affiliation are sensitive to other peoples feelings
Vroom Vroom’s Expectancy Theory - This theory states that motivation to work is strongly determined by an individual perception that a certain type of behavior will lead to a certain type of result.
EQUITY THEORY – 1965 Employees want fair treatment from their employers. Employees think of equity through a four step process – Employees evaluate how they are being treated by the firm. Employees think how they are compared with another persons. This comparison may bring about either equity or inequity.
If an employee feels there is equity in the treatment, he may Example- Dada Bhai Naoroji – Hope for India Mahadeo Govind Ranade – Father of reawakening Romesh Dutt Krishna is a motivator in Mahabharat How Bhishma Pitamah motivated Duryodhana. When he was not sure even about victory.