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FHF Ferrell Hirt Ferrell M: Business 2 nd Edition.

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Presentation on theme: "FHF Ferrell Hirt Ferrell M: Business 2 nd Edition."— Presentation transcript:

1 FHF Ferrell Hirt Ferrell M: Business 2 nd Edition

2 10 FHF Motivating the Workforce Copyright © 2011 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin

3 FHF The study of the behavior of individuals and groups in organizational settings Motivation An inner drive that directs a person’s behavior towards goals Human Relations 10-3

4 FHF What motivates employees to perform? How can managers boost morale? How do you maximize worker performance? How can you encourage creativity and innovation? Motivating the Workforce 10-4

5 FHF When a need exists, an individual engages in goal-directed behavior designed to satisfy that need The Basic Model of Motivation 10-5

6 [ ] FHF An employee’s attitude toward his or her job, employer and colleagues Morale Morale is a prominent aspect of human relations 10-6

7 FHF High morale Higher productivity, returns to shareholders and worker productivity Low Morale Contributes to absenteeism, high employee turnover, and lack of commitment Morale (continued) 10-7

8 FHF Morale Boosters Respect Involvement Appreciation Compensation Promotion Pleasant work environment Positive organizational culture Morale (continued) 10-8

9 Daily Motivation FHF Motivation is so important, iPhone even offers an app for it Daily Motivation offers inspiring quotes every day Daily Motivation 10-9

10 FHF Work/Life Balance Most employees are motivated by more than pay... Source: “Work-Life Balance Tops Pay,” USA Today, March 13, 2008, A

11 FHF Early 20th century Taylor & Gilbreth Scientific focus on work tasks & productivity Money Thought to be the sole motivator for workers Satisfactory pay & job security Motivate employees to work hard Classic Theory of Motivation 10-11

12 FHF at the Hawthorne Works Plant Elton Mayo Postulated that physical conditions in workplace stimulate productivity Findings show social and psychological factors influence productivity/morale Not work conditions Marks beginning of concern for human relations in the workplace Hawthorne Studies 10-12

13 FHF Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 10-13

14 FHF Physiological needs Basic needs for food, water, shelter Security needs Protection from physical & economic harm Social needs Need for love, companionship Esteem needs Self-respect and respect from others Self-actualization Maximizing one’s full potential Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 10-14

15 FHF Hygiene factors Focus on the work setting not the content of the work Wages, working conditions, company policies, job security Motivational factors Focus on content of the work itself Achievement, recognition, involvement, responsibility, advancement Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory 10-15

16 FHF Theory X Traditional view Assumes that workers generally dislike work and must be forced to do their jobs Theory Y Humanistic view Assumes workers like to work and seek out responsibility to satisfy social, esteem, and self-actualization needs McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y 10-16

17 FHF A management philosophy that stresses employee participation in all aspects of company decision making Variations on Theory Z Participative Management Employee Involvement Self-Directed Work Teams (SDWT) Z Theory 10-17

18 FHF Quality circles 5-8 people who meet to discuss ways to improve work Participative management/ self-directed work teams High level of employee control Make employees responsible for outcomes of their decisions Variations on Theory Z 10-18

19 FHF The assumption that how much people are willing to contribute to an organization depends on their assessment of the fairness (equity) of the rewards they will receive in exchange Perception that everyone is treated equally Equal pay for equal work Equity Theory 10-19

20 FHF Assumes that motivation depends not only on how much a person wants something but also on how likely he or she is to get it Someone who wants something and has a reasonable expectation to achieve it will be highly motivated Expectancy Theory 10-20

21 FHF Behavior Modification Changing behavior and encouraging appropriate actions by relating the consequences of behavior to the behavior itself Reward Punishment Motivating Employees 10-21

22 FHF Job rotation Movement of employees from one job to another to relieve the boredom often associated with job specialization Drawback is that is does not totally eliminate risk of boredom Toyota Toyota practices job rotation Workers change tasks every 2 hours Reduces repetitive stress injuries and mental fatigue Strategies for Motivating Employees 10-22

23 FHF Job enlargement Addition of more tasks to a job instead of treating each task as separate Seeks to counteract the boredom of division of labor Many small firms use job enlargement Requires training employees in new tasks Strategies for Motivating Employees 10-23

24 FHF Job enrichment Incorporating motivational factors (achievement, recognition, responsibility) into the job Idea developed by Herzberg in the 50s Gives employees feedback on their performance ✴ Rewards good performance Strategies for Motivating Employees (continued) 10-24

25 FHF Flexible scheduling strategies Flextime Allows employees to choose their start and end times Compressed workweek 40 hours in a 4-day workweek Job sharing Occurs when two people share the same job Strategies for Motivating Employees (continued) 10-25

26 FHF Fosters employee loyalty Boosts productivity Influences on pay, promotion, job design Nature of relationships Nature of the job itself Characteristics of the organization BMW keeps employee morale high BMW Open communication is important Keep a sense of humor, even when times are tough Motivation 10-26

27 FHF 10-27

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