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Published byStuart Jenkins Modified over 7 years ago
By Anna Strole
Research RAND: Reading Study Group Report on reading comprehension Shows that there are 3 domains to comprehension: Instruction Teacher preparation Community, cultural differences, the school and classroom culture, curriculum design, instructional activities, and teacher-student interactions Assessment
All reading programs should include: Phonological Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension Classroom organization, appropriate and interesting texts, choice of reading and collaboration with peers, writing, and expert tutoring also affect comprehension
Comprehension Strategies “guide students to become aware of how well they comprehend as they attempt to read and write” Interactive process: involves the reader and the text
The Reader The teacher needs to make sure that each student has the appropriate amount of background knowledge to understand the text It is important to eliminate biases in reading Cultural Context for students is important, especially ESL students Proper motivation for reading is necessary along with a specific purpose
Scaffolding The teacher must include scaffolding, especially for young readers Scaffolding can be provided through pictures, other resources, or books Dr. Seuss is an example of predictable language books, i.e. rhyming Schema theory: prepares children for new knowledge, builds on previous knowledge
The Reading Comprehension Activity Includes: Decoding Words Recognizing Vocabulary Using Higher Order Thinking Skills Applying Comprehension Strategies Purpose: Increase Knowledge Find Solutions to Real or Imagined Problems Engage in the text Predict outcomes
Strategies to Develop Schemata for Students Discussion Background-generating activity Prequestions and Stating objectives Story previews Field trips Semantic mapping/brainstorming Video, Film, Pictures Quick Write Role-playing
Fluency Fluency builds comprehension Builds vocabulary Helps make the story clearer Reading is more efficient and effective
Metacognition and Comprehension Strategies “thinking about thinking” Students become aware of how they read, learn, and strategies that work for them Prediction Monitoring comprehension Using graphic and semantic organizers Generate student questions Recognize story structures Summarize Sequence events Indentify main ideas Use context clues Compare and contrast Draw conclusions
Pre-reading Activities Activate prior knowledge Build background knowledge Preteach vocabulary Motivate and interest Predict Prequestion Direction set
During Reading Activities Map the story Make connections Text-to-text Text-to-self Text-to-world Guide reading Teacher modeling Modify texts
Post Reading Activities Retell Summarize Synthesize Make connections Hands on activities Discussion Writing
Teaching Strategies SQ3R: Survey, Question, Read, Retell, Review DR-TA: Directed Reading and Thinking Activity QAR: Question-Answer Relationship P-L-A-N: Predict, Locate, Add, Note
Technology Non-linear hypertext Multimedia text Interactive texts Online communication networking texts Strategies: Activate prior knowledge Monitor comprehension Identify the main idea Synthesize text Infer Generate student questions Navigate the text
Key Words Comprehension strategies Interactive process Automaticity Schemata Visual literacy Social Cultural Context Schema theory Fluency Metacognitive Strategies
Cohen, V.L., & Cowen, J.E. (2008). Literacy for children in an information age: teaching reading, writing, and thinking.. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
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