Presentation on theme: "EDMI 422: Middle School Literacy. 4 Levels of thinking: Literal Inferential Critical Evaluative With your neighbor, describe the difference."— Presentation transcript:
4 Levels of thinking: Literal Inferential Critical Evaluative With your neighbor, describe the difference between them.
4 Levels of thinking: Literal The most basic level of comprehension…answers to “right there” questions Inferential Reading “between the lines” Prior knowledge + information from the passage Critical Being able to recognize the author’s purpose and tone Distinguish fact/opinion…draw conclusions Evaluative Students understand fact, opinion, bias, assumptions, and elements of persuasion, and can evaluate the quality and validity of written material. Students can compare works, evaluate conclusions, and apply what is learned to real life experiences.
Having adequate background knowledge is a prerequisite and builds a bridge to new text Teachers use prereading activities to help build students’ background knowledge Teachers provide experiences and information to develop their schema Visual representations (photos, graphs, charts, videos, books, websites, etc.) Talk (least effective…especially for ELL students) Field trips Dramatizations Artifacts
The knowledge of words plays a tremendous role in comprehension…it is difficult to understand a text that is loaded with unfamiliar words Teachers need to create a word-rich environment to immerse students in words Teachers need to demonstrate word-learning strategies to figure out the meanings of unknown words
Fluent readers read fluently Attention is spent on comprehension, not decoding unfamiliar words Teachers demonstrate word-identification strategies, do repeated readings, and provide students with books at their instructional level When reading grade-level texts that are too difficult for struggling readers, they are read aloud so that everyone can comprehend and participate in the related activities
Students use these strategies to comprehend texts they are reading: Refer to text on p. 182 for descriptions of these strategies… p. 191 gives examples for teaching these strategies Activate Background Knowledge Predict ConnectQuestion Determine importance Repair Draw inferences Set a purpose EvaluateSummarize MonitorVisualize
Readers make 3 types of connections between the text and their background knowledge: Text-to-Self Readers link ideas in the text to their own lives. Text-to-World Readers relate a text to their “world” knowledge. Text-to-Text Readers link the text to another text they have read. Chapter 7
Attitude Teachers show excitement. Community Teachers create nurturing communities. Instruction Teachers plan authentic activities. Rewards Teachers offer positive feedback. Chapter 7
Expectations Students who feel they have little hope for success are unlikely to be engaged in literacy activities. Collaboration Students are often more engaged when working with peers. Reading and Writing Competence Students who read well are more likely to be motivated to read. Choice Students want to select their own books and writing topics. Chapter 7