Reader Competencies Each reader brings unique competencies that affect comprehension. Comprehension builds upon the reader’s speed and accuracy of decoding; reading fluency; vocabulary size; general world knowledge; specific comprehension strategies.
Dimensions of Text Content: subject matter Genre: category of literature Structure: narrative story structure or informational Language: author’s expression of ideas: tone, voice Adept diction: skillful and precise use of words Writing quality: text clarity and coherence Complexity: readability: words, sentences, concepts Graphic design features: physical features of text Media: means of communication: print, web-based
Elements of Comprehension Text Narrative Informational Activity Purpose for reading: identifying reading task Processes for reading: determining approach for reading Consequences of reading: increased knowledge, engagement Context Social and cultural factors: school, family, community
What Good Readers Do Before Set goal or purpose Preview text; make predictions During Reading Connect to world knowledge, make inferences Adjust reading by skimming, focusing, rereading, notes Check and adapt predictions, summarize passages Ask questions, respond and evaluate text Monitor comprehension, check and repair After Reading Reread, summarize, reflect Determine how information can be used and recalled
Comprehension Strategies Recognizing text structure guides reader in identifying and recalling key information. Predicting involves world knowledge and cues in text and helps the reader set purpose and recall text. Monitoring (metacognition) involves the reader’s knowledge and control of cognitive processes. Connecting to world knowledge involves activating schema and applying known to new in text.
Comprehension Strategies Asking questions about the text fosters comprehension and provides self- assessment. Answering questions helps, as answers may be found in the text itself and in the students’ own knowledge. Summarizing helps students’ awareness of text structure and relationship between ideas in text. Constructing Mental Images promotes active processing of text and provides structure for organizing and remembering text.
Comprehension Instruction Explicit Strategy Instruction Direct explanation Modeling Guided practice Independent practice Scaffolding Process: shifting responsibility for learning from teacher to student Tools: graphic organizers, prompts, cooperative learning, read-aloud methods Contextualized Instruction Occurs in the context of reading conceptually challenging, relevant, high-interest texts.
Reader Response Meaning is constructed through interaction between the reader and the text. Different readers respond in different ways. Readers in collaboration often produce meanings no single reader could. Discussion and writing are effective ways to foster reader response. Discussion Oriented Instruction: teacher guided/ student-led discussions, book clubs, literacy circles Writing into (before), writing through (during), writing out (after)
Instruction for ELLs Reading comprehension is closely tied to oral language proficiency. Promote language production and vocabulary acquisition while working on comprehension skills. Explicit and direct instruction actively engages students in monitoring their use of strategies in comprehension process. For novice readers in their primary language: provide explicit word-level skills instruction to help them attain the level of performance of native English speakers. For able readers in their primary language: emphasize transferring strategies from their native language to English.