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Published byRodger Elliott Modified over 7 years ago
Why Is Population Increasing at Different Rates in Different Countries?
* Process of change in a society’s population * Moves from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase * End with a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase and a higher population
* Stage 1 – low growth * Prominent in a society that depends on hunting and gathering * Food is scarce, so population remains low * Stage 2 – high growth * Results from a period of industrialization * More inventions and advancements makes it easier to sustain growing population
* Stage 3 – moderate growth * Crude birth rate drops sharply, but population continues to grow * MDC were in this stage during the early 20 th century * Stage 4 – low growth * Zero population growth (ZPG) – birth rate equals death rate
Fig. 2-13: The demographic transition consists of four stages, which move from high birth and death rates, to declines first in death rates then in birth rates, and finally to a stage of low birth and death rates. Population growth is most rapid in the second stage.
* Shows the total population in 5-year age groups with the youngest group at the base * Males on the left of the graph; females on the right * Countries in Stage 2 of demographic transition would have more young children * Countries in stage 4 of demographic transition would have more older people
* Dependency ratio – number of people who are too young or too old to work compared to those in their productive years * Dependents – younger than 15; older than 65 * The large number of children in LDCs puts a strain on poorer countries to provide services such as hospitals, schools, day care
Fig. 2-15: About one-third of world population is under 15, but the percentage by country varies from over 40% in most of Africa and some Asian countries, to under 20% in much of Europe.
* Number of males per hundred females in the population * More males are born than females; however, males have a higher death rate * A high mortality rate during childbirth accounts for the small female population in LDCs
Fig. 2-16: Population pyramids can vary greatly with different fertility rates (Laredo vs. Honolulu), or among military bases (Unalaska), college towns (Lawrence), and retirement communities (Naples).
Cape Verde, which entered stage 2 of the demographic transition in about 1950, is experiencing rapid population growth. Its population history reflects the impacts of famines and out-migration.
Chile entered stage 2 of the demographic transition in the 1930s, and it entered stage 3 in the 1960s.
Denmark has been in stage 4 of the demographic transition since the 1970s, with little population growth since then. Its population pyramid shows increasing numbers of elderly and few children.
* What reasons can you give that may have contributed to a drop in the crude death rate throughout the world?
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