Presentation on theme: "Population and Urbanization Demography -- study of human population Fertility incidence of childbearing in a society’s population. Fecundity -- maximum."— Presentation transcript:
Population and Urbanization Demography -- study of human population Fertility incidence of childbearing in a society’s population. Fecundity -- maximum potential of childbearing ability of women. Crude birth rate -- number of live births per 1000 of population in a given year.
Mortality Incidence of death in a society’s population Crude death rate -- deaths per 1000 of population in a given year. Infant Mortality Rate -- deaths per 1000 among infants under one year. Life expectancy-- average life span of a society’s population.
Migration Movement of people into and out of a specified territory. Immigration -- movement into a territory. emigration -- movement out of a territory.
Population Growth Rate -- subtract crude death rate from crude birth rate. Low in rich countries and high in poor countries. Population Composition a) Sex Ratio -- number of males per 100 females in a given population. b) Age-sex pyramid - graphic representation of the age and sex distribution of a population.
POPULATION THEORIES Malthusian Perspective 1.Population, if left unchecked, will tend to exceed the food supply. 2.Checks on population can be positive (famines, wars) or preventive (birth control). 3.For the poor, any improvement in income is lost to additional births. 4.The wealthy and better educated already exercise preventive checks.
Projected Population of the U.S.: 2 or 3 Child Average per Family
Demographic Transition Theory: Four Stages Stage 1. –Birth rate and the death rate are high. –Population growth is modest.
Demographic Transition Theory: Four Stages Stage 2. –Birth rate remains high. –Death rate begins to drop sharply because of sanitation, increased food production, medical advances. –Rate of population growth is very high. –Most sub-Saharan African countries are presently at this stage.
Demographic Transition Theory: Four Stages Stage 3. –The birth rate declines sharply. –Because the death rate continues to drop, population growth is still rapid.
Demographic Transition Theory: Four Stages Stage 4. –Birth rate and the death rate are low. –Population grows slowly if at all. –North America, Europe, and Japan are at this stage today.
Stages of the Demographic Transition
Global Population Trends. a) Zero Population Growth -- reproduction maintains population at a steady state. Prevalent in developed countries. b) In less developed countries -- children are still seen as economic assets, status of women is low.
URBANIZATION Process by which an increasing proportion of population lives in cities. Metropolis -- large cities that exert influence over a region. Megalopolis -- overlapping area consisting of at least two large cities and their suburbs. Suburbs-- urban areas beyond the political boundaries of the city.
Urbanization Trends Only 5% of the American population lived in urban areas in As recently as 1800, less than 3% of the world’s population lived in cities of 20,000 or more. 45% of the world’s population now lives in urban areas. In North America, 80% of the population lives in cities.
What are the problems confronting urban areas? Urban renewal (gentrification) -- refurbishing of old buildings to put them to new use. Read about what metropolitan statistical and consolidated metropolitan areas are.
Experiencing the City Ferdinand Tonnies Gemeinschaft (community) -- people are bound closely together by kinship and tradition. Gesellschaft (society) -- people have weak social ties and are self interested.
Urbanization in Poor Countries. Contain most of the world largest cities. Cities have a tough time supporting the growing urban populations. Why are people moving to cities? What are the problems of urbanization in poor countries?