Presentation on theme: "Population Chapter 2 An Introduction to Human Geography"— Presentation transcript:
1Population Chapter 2 An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape, 9eJames M. RubensteinChapter 2PopulationVictoria Alapo, InstructorGeog 1050
2Distribution of World Population Population concentrationsThe four largest population clusters (see text). PgOther population clustersSparsely populated regionsDry lands – Cold landsWet lands – HighlandsPopulation density (discussed later)Arithmetic densityPhysiological density/ Agricultural density
3World Population Cartogram This cartogram displays countries by the size of their population rather than their land area.(Only countries with 50 million or more people are named.) Pg 47
4World Population Distribution World population is very unevenly distributed across the Earth’s surface and it can becompared to climate distribution.
5Arithmetic Population Density Arithmetic population density is the number of people per total land area or per square mile/km.The highest densities are found in parts of Asia and Europe.
6Physiological Density Physiological density is the number of people per arable land area. This is a good measure of therelation between population and agricultural resources in a society.
7Crude Birth RatesThe crude birth rate (CBR) is the total number of births in a country per 1,000 population per year.The lowest rates are in Europe, and the highest rates are in Africa and several Asian countries.
8Crude Death RatesThe crude death rate (CDR) is the total number of deaths in a country per 1,000 population per year.Because wealthy countries are in a late stage of the demographic transition, they often have a higherCDR than poorer countries – more older people than younger people.
9Natural Increase Rates The natural increase rate is the percentage growth or decline in the population of a country per year(not including net migration). i.e. natural increase or decrease is the difference btw birth and deaths.Countries in Africa and Southwest Asia have the highest current rates, while Russia and some Europeancountries have negative rates.
10Total Fertility RatesThe Total fertility rate (TFR) is the number of children an average woman in a society will have through her childbearing years. The lowest rates are in Europe, and the highest are in Africa and parts of the Middle East, due mainly to Social Reasons. In traditional societies, CHILDREN take care of their parents, not Social Security.
11Infant Mortality Rates The infant mortality rate is the number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births per year. The highestinfant mortality rates are found in some of the poorest countries of Africa and Asia.
12Life Expectancy at Birth Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live. The highestlife expectancies are generally in the wealthiest countries, and the lowest in the poorest countries.
13Variations in Population Growth The Demographic Transition Stages1. Low growth – 3. Moderate growth2. High growth – 4. Low growthCountries are in different stages of demographic transition, which can be shown with the aid of “population pyramids”.Population pyramidsShows age distribution & gender ratio (see slides)
14The Demographic Transition The demographic transition consists of four stages. See text, pg 58, Fig 2-13.Population growth is most rapid in the second stage.
15Population PyramidsThis is a graphic device showing the age and sex structure of a population. See pyramid showing “high growth” (below).
16Population Pyramids Pyramids also help to show the “dependency ratio”: Which calculates the proportion of the population of working age to the non-working age. See pyramids.The dep. ratio is when you compare the ratio of the combined pop. of children less than 15 yrs and elderly over 64, to the pop. of those btw 15 & 64 yrs (working age).The larger the % of dependents, the greater the dependency ratio and financial burden – rich countries have too many old; poor countries have too many young (see slides).
17Population Pyramids in U.S. Cities Population pyramids can vary greatly, with different fertility rates (Laredo vs. Honolulu), or amongmilitary bases (Unalaska), college towns (Lawrence), and retirement communities (Naples). See textbook.
19Will the World Face an Overpopulation Problem? Thomas Malthus on overpopulationHis theory on population growth and food supply (geometric vs. arithmetic progression)Malthus’ critics: the “Cornucopians”Declining birth ratesMalthus theory and realityReasons for declining birth rates
20Food and Population, 1950–2000 Malthus vs. Actual Trends Malthus predicted population would grow faster than food production, but food production actuallyexpanded faster than population in the second half of the twentieth century. Why?
21Food Supplies Over the Last 200 Years (Affected Malthus’ Prediction) Technological advances:Green revolutionNew cropsTransplants and genetic engineeringNew croplandNew lands opened by irrigationTransportation and storageFaster refrigerated modern methodsImproved storage protects against spoilage and pests