Presentation on theme: "Mr. Clifford US 1. France’s North American Empire 1750’s: France & Great Britain were rivals Both wanted control of North America (fur trade, plantations,"— Presentation transcript:
France’s North American Empire 1750’s: France & Great Britain were rivals Both wanted control of North America (fur trade, plantations, trade, cash crops, natural resources) France controlled: St. Lawrence River, Great Lakes Area, Quebec, western Pennsylvania, & Mississippi River all the way down to New Orleans. French colonies were much different than British colonies. French viewed Native Americans as trade partners, NOT enemies English colonists supported Great Britain because they wanted to expand westward.
How did the French & Indian War begin? France built Fort Duquesne in Ohio Virginia government sold land in Ohio Valley to wealthy planters. July 1754: Virginia sent militiamen to Fort Necessity (fort near Fort Duquesne) to order the French to leave. (Virginia militiamen were led by 22 year old colonel George Washington) Washington & his men were forced to surrender. Battle at Fort Necessity was the beginning of the French & Indian War. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IVEmOVnS9BE
Between 1755-1756 the French troops & their Native American allies continually defeated British & colonial troops. France wanted to keep their colonies in Canada, Ohio River Valley, Northern Mississippi River to Louisiana.
William Pitt named General of British Army Iroquois Native Americans decided to join the British instead of France. 1759: Britain took the French capital of Quebec 1763: French & Indian War ended. (Treaty of Paris) Great Britain claimed Canada, all of North America east of Mississippi River. Spain kept all their land west of the Mississippi River. Native Americans who supported France found in harder to bargain with Great Britain.
Great Britain now controlled the Ohio River Valley (Western Pennsylvania/Ohio) Ottawa would create problems for colonists & British Proclamation of 1763: Britain banned colonists from settling land west of the Appalachian Mountains to avoid contact with Native Americans Proclamation of 1763 angered colonists.
Colonists believed that the British didn’t care about their needs or rights. Britain was suffering from a financial crisis (depression) from fighting the long war against France. To pay for the war debt, Britain decided that the colonists needed to pay. Britain would use taxes to acquire colonial money.
British government stationed 10,000 British soldiers in newly acquired territories to keep Native Americans & French subjects under control. Colonists saw a standing British army as a threat against their lives & their freedom.
During war, the British had cracked down on colonial smuggling to ensure merchants were not doing business with French. Royal Governor of Massachusetts authorized the use of writs of assistance, which was a general search warrant that allowed British custom officials to search any colonial ship, building, & house. Merchants in Boston were outraged that their privacy was taken from them.
Parliament to enact a law known as the Sugar Act. The Sugar Act did three things: halved the duty on foreign made molasses. Placed duties on certain imports that had never been taxed before It strengthened the enforcement of the law allowing prosecutors to try smuggling cases in a court decided by one judge & not a colonial jury. COLONISTS COMPLAINED THAT PARLIAMENT COULD NOT TAX THEM & THAT PARLIAMENT WAS VIOLATING THEIR RIGHTS & FREEDOM.
During the French & Indian War, colonists lost much of their respect for British army. (Colonists learned that the British army was NOT invincible & that British officers treated their soldiers/colonists “little better than slaves”. Colonists were very upset at Britain for keeping a standing army in the colonies and for passing laws that violated rights of British citizens.