2 RIVALS FOR AN EMPIRE France’s North American Empire 1750’s: France & Great Britain were rivalsBoth wanted control of North America (fur trade, plantations, trade, cash crops, natural resources)France controlled: St. Lawrence River, Great Lakes Area, Quebec, western Pennsylvania, & Mississippi River to New Orleans.French colonies much different than British colonies.French viewed Native Americans as trade partners, NOT enemiesEnglish colonists supported G.B. because they wanted to expand westward.
3 France’s North American Empire Jacques Cartier explored St. Lawrence RiverSamuel de Champlain founded Quebec1st French Settlement in North America1682- Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La SalleEntire Mississippi Valley for France70,000 French Colonists
5 BRITAIN DEFEATS AN OLD ENEMY How did the French & Indian War begin?France built Fort Duquesne in OhioVirginia government sold land in Ohio Valley to wealthy planters.July 1754: Virginia sent militiamen to Fort Necessity (fort near Fort Duquesne) to order the French to leave.led by 22 year old colonel George WashingtonWashington & his men were forced to surrender.Battle at Fort Necessity was the beginning of the French & Indian War.
6 Early French Victories Washington goes back into battle as an aide for general Edward Braddock1,500 soldiers neared Fort Duquesne, but were ambushed and retreatedFrench troops & Native American allies continually defeated British & colonial troops.France wanted to keep their colonies in Canada, Ohio River Valley, Northern Mississippi River to Louisiana.
7 Pitt & the Iroquois Turn the Tide William Pitt named General of British ArmyIroquois Native Americans decided to join the British instead of France.1759: Britain took the French capital of Quebec1763: French & Indian War ended. (Treaty of Paris)Great Britain claimed Canada, all of North America east of Mississippi River.Spain kept all their land west of the Mississippi River.
8 Victory Brings New Problems Great Britain now controlled the Ohio River Valley (Western Pennsylvania/Ohio)Ottawa leader Pontiac realizes that a French loss is a Native American Losswould create problems for colonists & BritishCaptured 8 British forts in Ohio ValleyBritish officers gave smallpox-infested blankets to NativesProclamation of 1763: Britain banned settlement west of Appalachian Mountains to avoid contact with Native AmericansEstablished a Proclamation Line of where not to crossProclamation of 1763 angered colonists, and could not be enforced
9 THE COLONIES & BRITAIN GROW APART Colonists believed that British didn’t care about their needs or rights.Britain was suffering from a financial depression from fighting the warBritain decided that the colonists needed to pay. Britain would use taxes to acquire colonial money.
10 Problems Resulting from War Authorized use of writs of assistancegeneral search warrant that allowed British custom officials to search any colonial ship, building, & house.Merchants in Boston were outraged that their privacy was taken from themBritish government stationed 10,000 British soldiers in new territories to control Native Americans & French Colonistssaw a standing British army as a threat against their lives & their freedom.Wanted to stop smuggling, put George Grenville in charge
11 SUGAR ACT Parliament to enact a law known as the Sugar Act. The Sugar Act did three things:halved the duty on foreign made molasses.Placed duties on certain imports that had never been taxed beforeStrengthened enforcement of law allowing prosecutors to try smuggling cases in a court decided by one judge & not a colonial jury.COLONISTS COMPLAINED THAT PARLIAMENT COULD NOT TAX THEM & THAT PARLIAMENT WAS VIOLATING THEIR RIGHTS & FREEDOM.