GMO: Genetically Modified Organism GMO: organism whose genome has been engineered in the laboratory in order to favour the expression of desired physiological traits or the production of desired biological products. NY Times – Genetically Modified Food Navigator NY Times – Genetically Modified Food Navigator Britannica article Britannica GMO background
More New Vocab Biotechnology – process of manipulating organisms, cells, or molecules to produce a specific products. Recombinant DNA - DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources. Transgenic organism – containing genes from another species host that carries the inserted DNA from one or more organisms = genetically modified organism
Genetic Engineering/Modification Selective Breeding (hybridization vs. inbreeding) Ex: dog breedsdog breeds 1849 -1926 Luther Burbank (botanist) developed more than 800 varieties of plants via hybridization Hybridization – crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both. Inbreeding – maintains desirable characteristics in a line of organisms Associated risk: increase chance that a cross will bring together 2 recessive alleles for genetic defect.
Fig. 12.11, p. 273 Crop Cross breeding Desired trait (color) ApplePear Offspring Cross breeding Best results New offspring Desired result
Biotech Crops in the United States [from Wikipedia] Fig. 9-10 here
The Objectives of Genomics Disease resistance Drought tolerance Frost tolerance Salt tolerance Improved nutritional value Incorporate human vaccines
The Problems with Genomics Environmental concerns Not considered safe by all consumers Not affordable in all countries Major player in the future of agriculture Might keep food production in pace with population growth
Environmental Problems Pest resistance to genetically engineered toxin Broad spectrum impact on non-target species “Super weeds” Contamination (decreasing natural variation)
Food Safety Issues Proteins cause allergic responses Antibiotic resistance to human pathogens Plant produces new toxic substances
Summary: GMF Controversy Unexpected plant mutations create higher toxin levels Introduce new allergens into foods Lower nutritional value Don’t help feed world’s hungry Reduce effectiveness of natural pesticides Resistant genes passed on through pollination to wild relatives = super weeds Increased herbicide use on resistant crops Increased costs of food to cover devp. & patenting of GMF Rapid evolution of pesticide resistant insects. Killing beneficial insects – monarch butterfly Introducing chemicals into soil killing soil organisms Irreversible and unpredictable genetic & ecological effects
Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplifies a selected section of DNA quickly –Provides LOTS of DNA to work with and analyze PCR animation PCR tutorial PCR song
35S Promoter Gene This is a “marker” found in many GMO’s –from cauliflower mosaic virus; allows modified genes to enter original modified plant cells Wild Type : no marker = (-) Round-Up Ready: yes marker = (+) Your food sample: – (-) result = not a GMO – (+) result = yes a GMO!
Tubulin Protein Plant protein found in all plants, therefore, the gene for this protein should be found in all plant DNA samples. (-) Your sample is missing plant DNA! (+) Your sample contains captured plant DNA!
Results you should get: Wild Type Soy Bean: (-) 35s (+) Tubulin Round-Up Ready Soy Bean: (+) 35 s (+) Tubulin Your Food Item: (???) 35s (+) Tubulin unless your food is really over-processed!
Gel Electrophoresis Physically separate different sized fragments through an agarose gel using an electrical current Tutorial 1 Tutorial 2 - Work through 4 Discovery ModulesTutorial 2 Tutorial 3- Go to “Manipulation” then “techniques” then “sorting and sequencing”Tutorial 3