Presentation on theme: "Atoms, Elements, and Compounds- Chapter 6"— Presentation transcript:
1 Atoms, Elements, and Compounds- Chapter 6 Section 1Chemistry in BiologyAtoms, Elements, and Compounds- Chapter 6Atoms__________are the building blocks of matter.Neutrons and protons are located at the _____________of the atom.__________are positively charged particles.__________are particles that have no charge.________are negatively charged particles that are located outside the nucleus.
2 There are over ______known elements, _______of which occur naturally. Section 1Chemistry in BiologyAtoms, Elements, and CompoundsElementsAn ________is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by physical or chemical means.There are over ______known elements, _______of which occur naturally.
3 ________________Isotopes Section 1Chemistry in BiologyAtoms, Elements, and Compounds________Atoms of the same element, having the same number of protons & electrons but have a different number of _____________________________IsotopesWhen a nucleus breaks apart, it gives off __________that can be detected and used for many applications.Healthy personAlzheimer’s patient
4 Section 1Chemistry in BiologyAtoms, Elements, and CompoundsCompoundsA _________substance formed when two or more different elements combine in a specific _____________.Compounds cannot be broken down into simpler compounds or elements by ____________means.
5 _______________bonds Section 1Chemistry in BiologyAtoms, Elements, and CompoundsChemical Bonds_______________bondsChemical bond that forms when ______________________A ____________is a compoundin which the atoms are heldtogether by covalent bonds.
6 Section 1Chemistry in BiologyAtoms, Elements, and CompoundsIonic BondsAttraction between _________oppositely charged atoms or groups of atoms. One element gives up an electron to the other.Reactants and ProductsA _____________is the process by which atoms or groups of atoms in substances are reorganized into ________________substances.
7 Section 2Chemistry in BiologyChemical ReactionsChemical EquationsChemical formulas describe the substances in the reaction and arrows indicate the process of change.______________are the starting substances, on the left side of the arrow.______________are the substances formed during the reaction, on the right side of the arrow.
8 Glucose and oxygen react to form carbon dioxide and water. Let’draw Section 2Chemistry in BiologyChemical ReactionsGlucose and oxygen react to form carbon dioxide and water.Let’drawThe law of conservation of mass states matter cannot be created or destroyed.
9 Section 2Chemistry in BiologyChemical ReactionsEnergy of ReactionsLet’s drawThe _____________ is the minimum amount of energy needed for reactants to form products in a chemical reaction.
10 This reaction is exothermic and _________________. Section 2Chemistry in BiologyChemical ReactionsThis reaction is exothermic and _________________.Let’s drawThe energy of the product is ____________ of the reactants.
11 This reaction is endothermic and _______________. Section 2Chemistry in BiologyChemical ReactionsThis reaction is endothermic and _______________.Let’s drawThe energy of the products is higher than the energy of the reactants.
12 It does not increase how much product is made and it does not get used Section 2Chemistry in BiologyChemical ReactionsEnzymesA ________is a substance that lowers the activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction.It does not increase howmuch product is made and it does not get usedup in the reaction._____________are biological catalysts.
13 Section 2Chemistry in BiologyChemical ReactionsThe reactants that bind to the enzyme are called _____________________.The specific location where a substrate binds on an enzyme is called the _________________.Let’s draw
14 Section 2Chemistry in BiologyChemical ReactionsThe active site changes shape and forms the ___________________ complex, which helps chemical bonds in the reactants to be broken and new bonds to form.Factors such as ________, temperature, and other substances affect enzyme activity.
15 __________________Polarity Section 3Chemistry in BiologyWater and Solutions__________________PolarityMolecules that have an unequal distribution of charges are called __________molecules.Polarity is the property of having ______opposite poles.A _______________is a weak interaction involving a hydrogen atom and another element.Let’s draw.
16 ________________________Mixtures Section 3Chemistry in BiologyWater and Solutions________________________MixturesA mixture that has a uniform composition throughoutA _______________is a substance in which another substance is dissolved.A ___________is the substance that is dissolved in the solvent.
17 __________________Mixtures Section 3Chemistry in BiologyWater and Solutions__________________MixturesIn a heterogeneous mixture, the components remain ____________.Let’s draw.
18 Water and Solutions Acids and Bases Section 3Chemistry in BiologyWater and SolutionsAcids and BasesSubstances that release ________________(H+) when dissolved in water are called ________.Substances that release ________________(OH–) when dissolved in water are called _________.Let’s draw
19 The measure of concentration of ______in a solution is called ______. Section 3Chemistry in BiologyWater and SolutionspH and BuffersThe measure of concentration of ______in a solution is called ______.Let’s drawAcidic solutions have pH values ______than _____.Basic solutions have pH values _______than ____.
20 Section 3Chemistry in BiologyWater and Solutions____________are mixtures that can react with _________or _______to keep the pH within a particular range.Let’s draw
21 Section 4Chemistry in BiologyThe Building Blocks of LifeOrganic ChemistryLet’s drawThe element __________ is a component of almost all biological molecules.
22 The Building Blocks of Life Section 4Chemistry in BiologyThe Building Blocks of LifeCarbon has _______electrons in its outermost energy level.One carbon atom can form ___________covalent bonds with other atoms.Carbon compounds can be in the shape of straight chains, ____________chains, and ___________.
23 _________________________ Section 4Chemistry in BiologyThe Building Blocks of Life_________________________Carbon atoms can be joined to form carbon molecules.______________are large molecules formed by joining smaller organic molecules together.______________ are molecules made from repeating units of identical or nearly identical compounds linked together by a series of ______________________bonds.
24 Making and Breaking Polymers _______________ reaction – a reaction that removes a molecule of _______in order to build a polymer.______________ – (essentially the reverse of dehydration reaction) the bond between two monomers is broken by the addition of a _____________molecule.
26 ____________________ Section 4Chemistry in BiologyThe Building Blocks of Life____________________Compounds composed of _______, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms for each carbon atom—(________)nLet’s draw
27 Two monosaccharides joined together form a _______________________. Section 4Chemistry in BiologyThe Building Blocks of LifeTwo monosaccharides joined together form a _______________________.Longer carbohydrate molecules are called _________________________.
28 _____________________ Section 4Chemistry in BiologyThe Building Blocks of Life_____________________Molecules made mostly of _____and hydrogenA ________________is a fat if it is _______ at room temperature and an oil if it is _______________at room temperature.Let’s draw
29 Section 4Chemistry in BiologyThe Building Blocks of LifeLipids that are saturated fats - have only single _______ ______ between the carbon atoms.Lipids that are unsaturated - have at least one ____________ bond between carbon.Fats with more than one double bond in the tail are called ____________fats.
31 __________________ Monomer – amino acid Section 4Chemistry in BiologyThe Building Blocks of Life__________________Monomer – amino acid__________________are small compounds that are made of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and sometimes sulfur.
32 The Building Blocks of Life Section 4Chemistry in BiologyThe Building Blocks of LifeLet’s draw
33 When two amino acids are bonded together through dehydration reaction, a _____________ bond is formed.
34 The Building Blocks of Life - Proteins Section 4Chemistry in BiologyThe Building Blocks of Life - Proteins_____________– The number and the order in which the amino acids are joined.________________- Bonding interaction with other polypeptides.
35 The Building Blocks of Life - Proteins _____________– The overall 3 dimensional shape of a polypeptide.__________________- Bonding interaction with other polypeptides
36 The Building Blocks of Life – Nucleic Acids Section 4Chemistry in BiologyThe Building Blocks of Life – Nucleic Acids_______________are complex macromolecules that store and transmit genetic information.Nucleotides – the monomer that builds Nucleic acids.Let’s draw