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Chemistry & Biochemistry

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Presentation on theme: "Chemistry & Biochemistry"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemistry & Biochemistry

2 Terminology Matter – Anything that takes up space & has mass.
Mass – Quantity of matter Weight – The pull of gravity on the mass of an object. Elements – Pure substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter. Atom – Smallest unit of matter.

3 Terminology, continued….
Subatomic particles. Electron Neutron Proton Compound: Two or more elements chemically combined. Bonds Covalent – shares electrons Ionic – based on electrical attraction

4 Qualities of a Compound
They are all made of 2 or more elements. They are chemically bonded. They have a definite ratio.

5 More terms… Atomic number: The number of protons
Mass number: Number of proton & neutrons.

6 Periodic Table

7 Mixtures Combined substances that DO retain their original properties.
Three types: Solution: Made of solute & solvent; do not come out of solution. Suspension: Settle out over time Colloid: Two states Sol state - liquid Gel state - gel

8 Acids & Bases Acidity: Measurement of the amount of hydrogen ions.
Alkalinity: Measurement of the amount of hydroxide ions.

9 Organic vs. Inorganic Compounds
Organic - generally derived from living things and contain carbon. Inorganic – generally derived from non-living things. FOUR MAJOR GROUPS Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

10 Water Properties of Water
Cohesion – Attraction between like molecules. Adhesion – Attraction of water molecules to the molecules of a solid surface. Water is polar (unevenly charged) Oxygen has a slight negative charge. Hydrogen has a slight positive charge.

11 Polymers vs. Monomers Polymers: compounds consisting of repeating linked units. Monomers: Simple molecules composing each unit of a polymer. Macromolecule: A large polymer

12 Dehydration synthesis
Condensation Reaction Monomers link to form a polymer; water is removed.

13 Hydrolysis A polymer splits to form two monomers when water is added

14 Carbohydrates C, H, O (2 hydrogen atoms to 1 oxygen)
Monosaccharides (simple sugars) Fructose, glucose, galactose Disaccharides (double sugars) Lactose, sucrose, maltose Polysaccharides (complex sugars) Starch, cellulose, glycogen (animal starch)

15 Sugars Glucose, fructose, & galactose – C6H12O6
Isomers – same molecular formula, but different properties. Sucrose, lactose, & maltose – C12H22O11 HOW CAN THIS BE??

16 Functional Groups Clusters of atoms that influence the properties of the molecule. Types Hydroxyl –OH (alcohols) Amino group – NH2 Sulfhydryl group – SH Phosphate group – H3PO4 Carboxyl group - COOH

17 Lipids Function: Barrier between aqueous environments inside & outside the cell. Cell Membrane Energy storage Fats Protective Coverings Waxes Insulation

18 Lipids, continued…. Fatty Acids: Monomers that make up most lipids.
Composed of a long, straight hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group Carboxyl group: Hydrophilic, “water loving” Hydrocarbon chain: Hydrophobic, “water fearing”

19 Types of Lipids Triglycerides Fats – Solid at room temperature
Oil – Liquid at room temperature Waxes Steroids Cholesterol is an example Doesn’t contain fatty acids

20 Proteins Account for more than 50% of the dry weight of the cell
Structural support Storage Transport Signaling Movement Defense Increase the speed of chemical reactions.

21 Proteins, continued…. Amino Acids – monomers of proteins
Amino acids are always in this form

22 Types of Proteins Dipeptides: Two amino acids bonded together.
Polypeptides: A long chain of amino acids Enzymes: Proteins that act as catalysts in intermediary metabolism Catalyst: Substances that speed up chemical reactions without being affected by the reactions themselves.

23 Nucleic Acids Complex organic compounds that store important information in the cell. Nucleotides – monomers of nucleic acids

24 Types of Nucleic Acids DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid
Stores information important for all cell activities Sugar: deoxyribose RNA: ribonucleic acid Transfers information essential for making proteins Sugar: ribose

25 Chart provided… Polymer Lipids Proteins Monomer(s) Fatty Acids
Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Monomer(s) Monosaccharides Fatty Acids Amino Acids Nucleotides Elements Present C,H,O C,H,O,P C,H,O,N C,H,O,N,P 1ST Function Energy Protection Structure Contain hereditary information 2nd Energy, Insulation Speed up chemical rxtn. Transfer info. for protien synthesis Examples Glucose, sucrose, starch, etc. Fats, oils, waxes, steroids Dipeptide, polypeptide, enzymes DNA, RNA

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