2 How Can Abiotic Impacts Affect the Environment Let’s first understand what natural processes occur on earth
3 Recycling in the Biosphere Energy FLOWS through an EcosystemMATTER is the “stuff” that makes up everythingMatter CYCLES
4 Biogeochemical Cycles Law of Conservation of MatterMatter is never CREATED nor DESTROYEDWater cycleCarbon cycleNitrogen CyclePhosphorous cycleSulfur cycle
5 Bio vs. Geo vs. Chemi Biological processes: Geological Processes: consist of any and all activities performed by living organisms.Eating, breathing, metabolizing, releasing wastesGeological Processes:Earth processesVolcanic eruptions, formation/breakdown of rock, cycling of matter through earth’s surfaceChemical Processes:Ex. Formation of clouds/precipitation, chemical reactions
7 Water (hydrologic) cycle Precipitation: any form of water that falls from the skySnow, rain, hail, sleetCondensation: cooling of water that changes it from a gas to a liquidExample: formation of cloudsEvaporation: physical change of water from a liquid to a gasTranspiration: Evaporation of water from the leaves of plantsRun off: flow of water from the landInfiltration/percolation: water absorbs beneath he earth’s surface into the soilGround water, Aquifer
8 Where’s all the H2O?? Ocean’s are the major reservoir for water Other places:Rivers, lakesAtmosphere (gaseous h2o)UndergroundGlaciers (solid h2o)Within living things
9 How do humans impact the water cycle? Start thinking…How do humans impact the water cycle?We’ll come back to this thought…
10 Carbon CycleCarbon (C) is one of the most important elements involved in chemical cyclingAtmospheric carbon is mostly in the form of CO2 (carbon dioxide)Extremely important for plants to carry out photosynthesisAlso a green house gas- what helps warm the earthOther forms of carbon are organic and inorganic forms.Cycles through the atmosphere, the geosphere, the hydrosphere, and biosphere
11 Carbon dioxide in atmosphere Respiration PhotosynthesisAnimals (consumers)Burning fossil fuelsDiffusionForest firesPlants (producers)DeforestationTransportationRespirationCarbon in plants (producers)Carbon dioxide dissolved in oceanCarbon in animals (consumers)DecompositionCarbon in fossil fuelsMarine food webs Producers, consumers, decomposersFigure 3.19: Natural capital.This simplified model illustrates the circulation of various chemical forms of carbon in the global carbon cycle, with major harmful impacts of human activities shown by the red arrows. Question: What are three ways in which you directly or indirectly affect the carbon cycle?Carbon in limestone or dolomite sedimentsCompactionProcessReservoirPathway affected by humansNatural pathwayFig. 3-19, p. 70
12 Movement of Carbon Goes into the atmosphere: Dissolves into water Burning of fossil fuels (combustion)Burning forestsRespiration (breathing)Dissolves into waterCalcification- dissolved carbon transformed into calcium carbonate (marine organisms)Moves through living things, starting with plants and then through trophic levelsMoves through soil via living wastes and decompositionCarbon in soil to water through erosion
13 Carbon Cycle Why is carbon important? Calcium carbonate in your bones Plants need carbon dioxide (CO2) for photosynthesisWhat else needs carbon?ALL living and some non living things are made out of carbon.
14 So what happens in the carbon cycle if.. Clearing large amounts of trees (deforestation)?Remember, plants take out CO2 from the atmosphereCO2 is one of the green house gases that helps warm the earthHow else are we putting putting carbon in the atmosphere??
16 Nitrogen CycleMost of the nitrogen on earth is in the atmosphere as N2 (pure nitrogen gas)This is not a usable form for most living organismsSpecialized bacteria transform N2 into usable formsNitrogen FixationConversion of N2 into NH3 and NH4+ (ammonia and ammonium)NitrificationConversion of NH3 and NH4+ into Nitrate ions (NO3-)Assimilation:Plants take up NO3 and convert into organic nitrogen compounds (proteins and nucleic acids)Ammonification:Decomposition of nitrogen containing detritus into ammonia and ammoniumDenitrification:Conversion of NH3 and NH4 back into N2 gas
17 Human Impact of Nutrient Cycles Disruption of nutrient cycles has harmful effects on the biosphereBurning fossil fuels----> global warmingIncreases CO2 (a green house gas!)Water pollution > intoxicating clean waterAir pollution > Acid RainDestroying plants and aquatic systemsCoral reef Bleaching101-With-Bill-Nye-the-Science-Guy.html
18 Independent Seat WorkCarbon and Water Cycle Worksheet