Presentation on theme: "CYCLES OF MATTER The Water Cycle Nutrient Cycles The Carbon Cycle"— Presentation transcript:
1 CYCLES OF MATTERThe Water CycleNutrient CyclesThe Carbon CycleThe Nitrogen CycleThe Phosphorus
2 The WaterCycleLife depends on the recycling of chemicals. Chemicals pass back and forth between organic matter and the abiotic components.A biogeochemical cycle is the cycling of elements of ecosystems, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter which are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another.It connects biological, geological and chemical aspects of the biosphere.
3 Water Chemical Properties +Two atoms of hydrogeno-One atom of oxygen
6 What Does Water Move Between? Water moves between the land, oceans, and atmosphere.Water vapor is water molecules that enter the atmosphere as a gas when they evaporate from the ocean or other bodies of water
7 EvaporationThe process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas
8 Heat from the sun changes water into water vapor CondensationHeat from the sun changes water into water vaporWater vapor produces droplets of waterthat form clouds
9 TranspirationThe process by which water enters the atmosphere by evaporating from leaves
10 The form may consist of rain, snow, sleet, or hail PrecipitationResults when the water droplets are large enough and the water returns to Earth’s surfaceThe form may consist of rain, snow, sleet, or hail
14 Condensation Transpiration Precipitation Evaporation The Clouds form The movement through plantsPrecipitationThe rain fallsEvaporationThe vapor rises
15 Water Cycle Song (to the tune of “She’ll Be Coming Around the Mountain”) Water travels in a cycle, yes it does.Use pointer finger to draw large circle in air.Repeat above motion.It goes up as evaporation,Raise arms at side with palms up.Forms clouds as condensation,Brings hands together above head, forming large cloud shape with arms.Then falls down as precipitation, yes it does.Slowly lower arms at side with palms down, fingers moving.
18 Importance of Carbon Found in all living organisms Found in the oceans, air, and certain types of rocksLess than 1 % circulates within the biosphere
19 Four Process of the Carbon Cycle Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration; decomposition of plants and animalsRelease of CO2 into the atmosphere by volcanoesBurial of carbon rich remains of organisms, their conversion into coal and petroleum (fossil fuels) through the pressure of overlying earthHuman Activity: mining, burning of fossil fuels, cutting and burning down of forests
20 Steps of the Carbon Cycle Carbon is present as carbon dioxide in the atmosphereReleased in the air by volcanic activity, burning of fossil fuels, and decomposition of organic matter and cellular respirationPlants take in CO2 and use it to produce high energy sugars (carbohydrates) during photosynthesisCarbohydrates are passed along the food chain to other organisms
21 Steps of the Carbon Cycle Carbon is found in the oceans, along with calcium and oxygen, in calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which is produced by many marine organismsCalcium carbonate can also be formed chemically in certain marine environments; it accumulates in marine sediments and in the bones and shells of organismsThey eventually breakdown and the carbon returns to the atmosphere
22 References Missouri Science Teaching and Education Partnerships Prentice Hall Biology by Miller and Levine
25 Importance of Phosphorus Components of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA); life sustaining moleculesComponents of biological membranesAbsorbed by plants from the soil or water and bind the phosphate into organic compounds
26 Phosphorus Facts Not common in the biosphere Remains mostly on land in rock and soil minerals, and in ocean sedimentsExists in the form of inorganic phosphatesReleased by the breakdown of rocks and sedimentsSome is washed into rivers and streams, where it dissolves
27 Eventually ends up in oceans where it is used by marine organisms Some phosphates stay on land and cycle between organisms and the soilOrganic phosphates move through the food web, from producers to consumers, and to the rest of the ecosystem
30 Importance of Nitrogen All organisms need nitrogen to make amino acids, the building blocks of proteinsSeveral different forms of nitrogen occur naturally in the atmosphereNitrogen gas (N2) makes up about 78% of the Earth’s atmosphereNitrogen-containing substances are found in wastes produced by many organisms as well as dead or decaying ones; examples are ammonia (NH3), nitrate ions (NO3), and nitrite ions (NO2)
31 Importance of Nitrogen Nitrogen also exists in different forms in the oceans and other large bodies of waterHuman activity adds nitrogen to the biosphere in the form of nitrate (a major component of plant fertilizers)
32 Steps of the Nitrogen Cycle Only certain types of bacteria can use the form of nitrogen gasBacteria that live in the soil, on the roots of plants called legumes, can convert nitrogen gas into ammonia (NH3): process is called nitrogen fixationOther bacteria convert ammonia into nitrates and nitrites
33 Steps of the Nitrogen Cycle Once nitrates and nitrites are available, producers use them to make their own proteinsUpon death, decomposers return the nitrogen back to the soil as ammoniaThe ammonia is taken back up by the producersOther bacteria convert the nitrates back into nitrogen gas: process is called denitrificationDenitrification releases nitrogen back into the atmosphere
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.