Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 The Biosphere Section 3-3; pages 74-80"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 3 The Biosphere Section 3-3; pages 74-80 Cycles of MatterChapter 3 The BiosphereSection 3-3; pages 74-80Energy Flow & CyclesElement Cycles(Revised August 4, 2003)
2 Matter within ecosystems is recycled within and between ecosystems BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES-connecting the biological, geological, and chemical aspects of the biosphereMatter Statement:Matter within ecosystems is recycled within and between ecosystemsBIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLESMatter within an ecosystem is recycled.(diagram of consumer--->decomposer--->soil--->producer--->consumer)
3 BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES Cycle - water, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen & other elements cycle from the abiotic (“geo” nonliving environment) to biotic (“bio” living organisms) & then back to the environment.Simply put, biogeochemical cycles pass the same molecules around again and again within the biosphere.bioticabioticBIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLESWater, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen & other elements cycle from the abiotic (“geo” nonliving environment) to biotic (“bio” living organisms) & then back to the environment.
4 BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES atmosphere“bank”Most element cycles have an atmospheric “bank” where the element is found in large amounts.BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES(This slide series points out the repeated events in most cycles.)Most element cycles have an atmospheric “bank” where the element is found in large amounts.The soil and the ocean are additional major banks for some elements.
5 BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES RIPatmosphere“bank”Elements move from the “bank” into organisms.Organisms release elements in daily activities or after death.BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLESDecomposers (or combustion or erosion) break down organic matter.What is a result of their actions?The element is released back into the atmosphere bank.Decomposers (or combustion or erosion) break down organic matter.What is the result of their actions?
6 BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES Three example cycles:WaterCarbon (carbon-oxygen)NitrogenH2OCNOBIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLESThree example cycles:WaterCarbon (carbon-oxygen)Nitrogen
7 WATER CYCLEevaporation – heating of water from liquid to atmospheric gas.condensation – cooling of water from vapor to tiny droplets that form clouds.precipitation – droplets too large to be contained in clouds and water returns to earth as rain, snow, or hail.transpiration – evaporation of water from leaves of plants.runoff – excess water from precipitation that comes from streams and rivers and carried to oceans and lakes.accumulation – collection of water on earth.(Have the students make a heading for Water Cycle and copy the words with space for) definition.WATER CYCLEUse the next diagram to help you define the following:evaporationcondensationprecipitationtranspirationrunoffaccumulation
9 CARBON CYCLEThe exchange of gases during photosynthesis and respiration is a major example of the living-nonliving cycle of carbon-oxygen.respirationphotosynthesisO2CO2CARBON CYCLEThe exchange of gases during photosynthesis and respiration is a major example of the living-nonliving cycle of carbon-oxygen.
10 CARBON CYCLE How does carbon enter the living part of the cycle? CO2CO2CO2CO2CO2CARBON CYCLEHow does carbon enter the living part of the cycle?CO2 + H2O ----> C6H12O6 + O2Carbon enters living portion of the carbon cycle through photosynthesis.CO2CO2CO2CO2 + H2O ----> C6H12O6 + O2
11 CARBON CYCLE Carbon is returned to the atmosphere environment by: cellular respirationerosioncombustiondecompositionCARBON CYCLECarbon returned to environment by:cellular respirationerosioncombustiondecomposition
12 CARBON CYCLErespiration – process where organisms obtain energy from breakdown of glucose.photosynthesis – plants use light energy (sun) to make glucose.decomposition – breakdown of dead organic matter.combustion – burning of fossil fuels (gas, petroleum, coal) which release CO2 into atmosphere.erosion – runoff of soil into body of waterCARBON CYCLEUse the next diagram to help you define relationship of the following terms to the carbon cycle.respiration - CO2 is released back into the atmosphere when food (glucose) is broken down during respirationphotosynthesis - CO2 is taken from the air and trapped into food (glucose) during photosynthesisdecomposition - CO2 is released back into the atmosphere as organic matter is broken down during decompositioncombustion - CO2 is released back into the atmosphere when organic material is burned (undergoes oxidation, similar to respiration )erosion – CO2 is released back into the atmosphere when erosion breaks down rock such as limestone containing CaCO3 (calcium carbonate)
14 N2 free nitrogen NITROGEN CYCLE 79% of the atmosphere is nitrogen gas but it is in a form most living things cannot use.N2freenitrogenNITROGEN CYCLE79% of the atmosphere is nitrogen gas but it is in a form most living things cannot use.
15 NITROGEN CYCLEIf we can’t take in free nitrogen, how do we acquire it so we can use it in our bodies?Why do we need nitrogen in our bodies?NITROGEN CYCLEIf we can’t take in free nitrogen, how do we acquire it so we can use it in our bodies?Why do we need nitrogen in our bodies?(Don’t answer these now – they lead to next item.)
16 NITROGEN CYCLE How do we acquire usable nitrogen? Nitrogen-fixing bacteria convert nitrogen into nitrates.Plants absorb nitrates.Animals eat plants.NITROGEN CYCLEHow do we acquire usable nitrogen?Nitrogen-fixing bacteria convert nitrogen into nitrates.Plants absorb nitrates.Animals eat plants.N2in airnitrogen-fixingbacteriaNITRATES
17 NITROGEN CYCLE How does the nitrogen return to the atmosphere? Denitrifying bacteria convert the nitrates back into nitrogen.denitrifyingbacteriaNITROGEN CYCLEHow does the nitrogen return to the atmosphere?Denitrifying bacteria convert the nitrates back into nitrogen.N2in airnitrogen-fixingbacteriaNITRATES
18 ? NITROGEN CYCLE Why do we need nitrogen? protein Nitrogen Nitrogen is an essential element for all proteins (amino acids) and nucleic acids.?Nitrogen
19 NITROGEN CYCLE Simplified Free N2 in Atmospheredenitrifyingbacterianitrogen-fixingbacteriaNITROGEN CYCLE SIMPLIFIEDdiagram of nitrogen cycleDiscuss the diagram and have student label on their handout.RIPOrganicmaterialNITRATES
20 NITROGEN CYCLE Simplified free N2 bank – atmospherenitrogen fixation – conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonianitrates – converted form of nitrogen from atmosphere.organisms – living thingsorganic material – components of living things made of C, H, O, Ndenitrification – ammonia and nitrates converted to nitrogen and released back into atmosphereNITROGEN CYCLE SimplifiedUse the next diagram to help you define relationship of the following terms to the nitrogen cyclefree N2 “bank”: Free means pure nitrogen not in any other compound. The “bank” is the atmosphere which is made up of 79% nitrogen.nitrogen-fixation: nitrogen-fixing bacteria convert free nitrogen into nitrate compoundsnitrates: the form of nitrogen that can can be used by organismsorganisms: Plants take in nitrates and use them in their tissues; animals eat the plants and get the nitrates from their tissuesorganic material: Dead organisms, animal waste and organic litter are decomposed by bacteria and other decomposersdenitrification: Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrates from decomposition back into free nitrogen.
21 Refer to Figure 3-14, page 78N2 in AtmosphereNO3- & NO2-NH3
22 All Cycles Are Related All cycles are related. Diagram showing interaction of water, carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus cycles.Just view that many things are being recycled.(Do not teach the cycles from this slide at this time. Repeated at end of slide show for review.)