Presentation on theme: "1. Review- By what two processes is water cycled from land to the atmosphere Sequence- Describe one way in which water from Lake Superior may make one."— Presentation transcript:
11. Review- By what two processes is water cycled from land to the atmosphere Sequence- Describe one way in which water from Lake Superior may make one complete cycle through the atmosphere and make it back to Lake Superior 2. Review- Why do living organisms need nutrients Predict- Based on your knowledge of the carbon cycle, what do you think might happen if humans were to continue to clear and burn vast areas of forests for building 3. Explanation- Describe how oxygen moves through the biosphere as part of the carbon cycle. Include a description of the various forms that oxygen takes.
3Biogeochemical Cycles Elements pass from one organism to another and among parts of the biosphere through closed loopsPowered by the flow of energy.
4Biogeochemical Cycles Involve biological processes, geological processes, and chemical processesMatter moves through these cycles, it is never created or destroyed.
5Biogeochemical Cycles Biological ProcessesAll activities performed by living organismsEating, breathing, “burning” food, and eliminating waste products.
6Biogeochemical Cycles Geological ProcessesInclude volcanic eruptions, the formation and breakdown of rock, and major movements of matter within and below the surface of the earth.
7Biogeochemical Cycles Chemical and Physical ProcessesInclude the formation of clouds and precipitation, the flow of running water, and the action of lightning.
8Biogeochemical Cycles Human ActivityInclude the mining and burning of fossil fuels, the clearing of land for building and farming, the burning of forests, and the manufacture and use of fertilizers.
9The Water CycleEnters atmosphere due to evaporation or transpiration in plantsIn atmosphere, water vapor condenses to form clouds and if they become large enough will fall as precipitation.
10The Water CyclePrecipitation can become ground water if it absorbed into the soil or flow along the surface until it enters a stream or lakeGround water can enter plant’s roots, flow into streams or lakes, or can become an underground reservoir.
17The Nitrogen CycleAmmonia (NH3), nitrate ions (NO3), and nitrite ions (NO2) are found in soil, in the wastes produced by many organisms, and in dead and decaying organic matter.
18Nitrogen CycleDissolved nitrogen exists in several forms in the ocean and other large water bodies.
19Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen Fixation Bacteria convert nitrogen gas into ammonia.
20Nitrogen CycleOther bacteria convert ammonia into nitrates and nitrites that producers can useConsumers eat the producers and reuse nitrogen to make what they needDecomposers release nitrogen from waste and dead organisms as ammonia, nitrates, and nitrites.
21Nitrogen Cycle Denitrification Bacteria obtain energy by converting nitrates into nitrogen gas, which is released into the atmosphere.
22Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen Fixation Nitrogen gas is converted to usable forms by lightning.
23Nitrogen Cycle Humans make and use fertilizers Excess fertilizer is often carried into surface water or groundwater.
24The Phosphorus Cycle Used in DNA & RNA and other molecules Very important but not abundantLand- Inorganic phosphate as rocks and soil mineralsOcean- Dissolved phosphate and sediments.
25The Phosphorus CycleRocks and sediments wear down, phosphate is releasedMay stay on land and cycle between organisms and soil.
26The Phosphorus CyclePlants bind phosphate into organic compounds from soil and waterOrganic phosphate moves through the food web, from producers to consumers.
27The Phosphorus CyclePhosphate my dissolve in water and flow through rivers to oceans and be incorporated into marine organisms.
28Limiting Nutrient Primary Productivity Nutrient whose supply limits productivityPrimary ProductivityRate at which primary producers create organic material.
29Nutrient Limitation in Soil Fertilizers contain large amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassiumPlants acquire carbon dioxide from the atmosphereMicronutrients suchas calcium, magnesium,sulfur, iron, and manganeseare necessary in relativelysmall amounts.
30Nutrient Limitation in Water SaltwaterNitrogen is often the limiting nutrientFreshwaterPhosphorus is typically the limiting nutrient.
31Nutrient Limitation in Water Aquatic ecosystem can receive a large input of a limiting nutrientRunoff from heavily fertilized fields.
32Nutrient Limitation in Water Can result in “Algae blooms”May not be enough consumersMay disrupt the ecosystem.