3 Net-migration Using the Population Data Sheet… Identify the three countries with the highest “net in-migration” rate.Identify the three countries with the highest “net out-migration” rate.What problems does using the rate versus the raw number present?
4 E.G. Ravenstein’s “Laws of Migration” Most people migrate for economic reasons.Cultural & environmental factors may also be important, but not as important as economicsMost migrants move a short distance, and stay within a country.Long-distance migrants go to major centers of economic activity.Most long-distance migrants are males.Most long-distance migrants are adults, not families with their children.**Theory of Human Migration:1885**
5 Causes of Migration Push vs. Pull Factors ECONOMIC CULTURAL North Dakota Oil BoomCULTURALIraq War (2003-present)ENVIRONMENTALHurricane Katrina (2005)
6 Why did people migrate to the USA? Pull Push Check Answers Overcrowdingin EuropeOvercrowdingin EuropeOvercrowdingin EuropePlenty of foodin USAPlenty of foodin USAPlenty of foodin USAPersecution ofRussian JewsPersecution ofRussian JewsPersecution ofRussian JewsPovertyin EuropePovertyin EuropePovertyin EuropeThe US Billof RightsThe US Billof RightsThe US Billof RightsHigher pay forUS workersHigher pay forUS workerCheckAnswersHigher pay forUS workersEuropeanclass systemEuropeanclass systemEuropeanclass systemReligiousfreedom in USReligiousfreedom in USReligiousfreedom in US
7 RefugeeWho is a refugee? In the US [under the Immigration and Nationality Act, Section 101(a)(42)]:The term 'refugee' means: (A) any person who is outside any country of such person's nationality … who is unable or unwilling to return to, and is unable or unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of, that country because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion, or (B) in such circumstances as the President … may specify, any person … who is persecuted or who has a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion.
9 RefugeeGlobal Refugees—There are about 20,000,000 refugees or internally displaced persons worldwide, (estimates vary a lot). The top 10 sources of refugees, asylum seekers and internally displaced persons in 2005 were:Afghanistan: 1,908,100Sudan: 693,300Burundi: 438,700DR Congo: 4430,600Somalia: 394,800Vietnam: 358,200Palestinians: 349,700 [or more than 4,300,000, depending on definitions]Iraq: 262,100Azerbaijan: 233,700Liberia: 231,100
10 RefugeeUS Refugees: —The ceiling on US refugee admissions is 70,000 per year Africa 20,000 25,000 20,000 20,000 East Asia 4,000 6,500 13,000 15,000 Eastern Europe 2,500 na na na The Former Soviet Union 14,000 na na na Europe &Central Asia na 13,500 9,500 15,000 Latin America & Caribbean 2,500 3,500 5,000 5,000 Near East & South Asia 7,000 2,000 2,500 5,000 Unallocated Reserve 20,000 20,000 20,000 10,000
11 Migration Patterns Wilbur Zelinsky… Demographic Transition Migration patterns change depending on demographic stageStage 2—international migration, also rural to urban migrationStage 3 & 4—internal migration, also urban to suburban , the destination of those in stage 2Gravity ModelStep Migration
12 Migration Terms Intervening Obstacle— “Lee Model” Environmental (oceans)Cultural (laws)International MigrationVoluntary vs. Forced Migration“Chain migration”Internal MigrationInterregional MigrationIntraregional Migration (ie. rural to urban, Counterurbanization)It refers to the social process by which immigrants from a particular town follow others from that town to a particular city or neighborhood, whether in an immigrant receiving country or in a new, usually urban, location in the home country. The term also refers to the process of foreign nationals immigrating to a new country under laws permitting their reunification with family members already living in the destination country. This mechanism is also known as serial migration.Chain migration can be defined as a “movement in which prospective migrants learn of opportunities, are provided with transportation, and have initial accommodation and employment arranged by means of primary social relationships with previous migrants.”U.S. side of the border is uninhabited and separated from Mexico by a fence
13 Migrant Characteristics Is Ravenstein still correct?Today, in the US, most international immigrants are women, not men.Although most immigrants to the US are still single adults, increasing numbers of immigrants are children (17 years of age or less).Mexican migrants to the US come from the interior.Why do we see changes?Those on the Mexican border already benefit from trade and jobs in the us on the border
14 Global Migration Patterns Only 5% of the world’s population are international migrants (still more than 300 million people)Net out-migration areas: Asia, Latin America and AfricaNet in-migration areas: North America, Europe, Oceania
15 US Immigration Patterns 1st Era: Colonial Period ( )2 million Europeans (90% British), 650,000 AfricansWhy/Results
16 US Immigration Patterns 2nd Era: Later European Migration (1840s-1930s)1st Peak (1840s-1850s)—4.3 million (German/Irish)Stage 2 (Migration transition)—repeatedly… “safety valve”2nd Peak (1880s)—German, Irish, Scandinavian3rd Peak ( )—Italy, Russia, Austria-Hungary1910—14% of US population was 1st/2nd generation immigrant
17 US Immigration Patterns 3rd Era: Modern Immigration (1970s to Present)Asian—1970s-1980s (China, Philippines, India, Vietnam)—7 millionLatin American—1980s-Present (Mexico, Dominican Rep, El Salvador)
18 Immigration Policies Quota System Undocumented Immigration No one knows how many immigrants are in the US illegallyMexicoCentral America, Asia, EuropeEnter illegally; or “overstay” visasInconsistencies…Haiti vs. CubaEconomic vs. Political migrants (political asylum)California, Texas, and Florida are the leadingdestinations for undocumented immigrants to theU.S.
19 Immigration Policies 36% Luxembourg 5% Denmark 19% Switzerland 9% Austria9% Germany9% Belgium6% France6% Sweden5% Denmark4% Netherlands4% Norway4% United Kingdom3% Ireland2% Spain2% ItalyForeign Born as % of European populations
20 Immigration PoliciesGuest Workers— temporarily for employment, not considered permanent migrantsMiddle East—wealthy oil states import workers from the Philippines, Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan, and BangladeshForeign workers represent 60 to 90% of labor force in most oil-exporting countriesTime-contract workers— Chinese migrants in Singapore, Malaysia, and ThailandSpanish youths attacked Moroccan immigrants in El Ejido, Spain after an alleged murder.
21 Internal Migration Interregional Migration Spreading westward since colonial times.Southern shift since the 1980sIntraregional Migration—migration within a single regionRural to UrbanCities to suburbs1800, 5% of the US population lived in suburbs75% of the US population lives in suburbsCounterurbanization
22 Internal MigrationThe center of U.S. population has consistently moved westward, with the migration ofpeople to the west. It has also begun to move southward with migration to thesouthern sunbelt.
23 Net Migration by County, 2000-04 Rural counties in the southwest and Florida have had net in-migration, while there hasbeen net out-migration from rural counties in the Great Plains
24 Internal Migration Brazil – migration from the coast to the interior Indonesia –migration from Java to less populated islandsRussia (Soviet Union) –forced and voluntary migration to the westIndia – limits migrationEurope – migrants moving from South to North, looking for better jobsBrasilia was created as Brazil’s new capitalIn 1960 and since then has attractedThousands of migrants in search of jobs.
25 U.S. States as Immigrant Destinations Fig. 3-8: California is the destination of about 25% of all US immigrants; another 25% go to New York and New Jersey. Other important destinations include Florida, Texas, and Illinois.
26 Emigration from ChinaFig. 3-10: Various ethnic Chinese peoples have distinct patterns of migration to other Asian countries.
27 Migration of Vietnamese Boat People Fig. 3-11: Many Vietnamese fled by sea as refugees after the war with the U.S. ended in Later boat people were often considered economic migrants.
28 Echo Canyon, northeastern Utah Echo Canyon was one of many obstacles to 19th century wagon trains heading west.
29 Interregional Migration in the U.S. Fig. 3-13: Average annual migrations between regions in the U.S. in 1995 and in 2003