Consequences of expansion… The Hellenization of Rome Most benefits of expansion went to the wealthy, patrician class Citizen-soldiers returned home to find their lands ravaged and unproductive and in debt- Increase in slave population displaced small, independent farmer… Ruined farmers, on the brink of bankruptcy joined the ranks of unemployed in Rome By 150 BC, a revolution was brewing: The Gracchus Revolution
TIBERIUS GRACCHUS (c.168 -133 BC) & GAIUS GRACCHUS (c.159 -121 BC)
Tiberius Gracchus, Tribune in133 BC Challenged traditional political practices by rallying the poor… Enforce an old law limiting latifundia-estates to 500 acres... Sell/rent public lands to the poor Distribute lands of deceased king of Pergamum to the poor
Reaction to the plans of Tiberius: The Senate said no, but was overridden by the Assembly Senate feared its loss of power His mistake- sought 2nd term as tribune... landowners provoked a riot; Tiberius was clubbed to death **-1 st time ever that a tribune was attacked and killed.
Gaius Gracchus, tribune in 123 BC Resurrect brother’s land reform plans Give colonial lands to retired soldiers Establish price controls- cheap grain subsidized by the government Initiate public works projects Extend citizenship
Gaius meets fate of his brother… He and 250 followers were killed but he created 75,000 new landowners Gracchi legacy...last true reformers
The beginning of the end… After the Gracchus Revolution, the next 100 years was dominated by a series of rival generals who engulfed Rome in civil wars, using their troops as personal possessions to further their own political ambitions, undermining the constitution, and leading to the collapse of the Republic.
Gaius Marius 157-86 BC Early fame: defeated the Numidians in North Africa Later, defeated a Germanic force of 300,000 (The Cimbri, and Teutones) Won an unprecedented (and illegal) 6 terms as consul…
Marius as innovator …terrible consequences Enlisted landless poor into his army, supplied them and rewarded them with his own money-loyalty was to him. “Marius’ mules” -army was streamlined-improved training, had to carry their own equipment-no followers/hangers-on. The army, no longer an instrument of the government, became a private possession of generals
Lucius Sulla, 138-78 BC Emerged during the so-called “War with the Italians” 91-88 BC Italians demanded citizenship and rebelled Sulla put down the rebellion (by granting all Italians citizenship!)
The First Civil War : Marius and Sulla: In 88 BC, King Mithradates of Pontus incited the massacre of 80,000 Italians in Asia. The Senate chose Sulla to deal with the rogue king Marius, through intrigue and violence, had the order rescinded and given to himself Sulla refused to accept his loss of command - marched on Rome –a fateful day in the Republic’s history!
In the civil war which followed, Sulla defeated the forces loyal to Marius, re-took control of Rome, and then left to fight King Mithradates Meanwhile, Marius’ supporters went on a killing spree and butchered supporters of Sulla. Also, while Sulla was away, Marius died. When Sulla returned, he defeated Marius’ supporters, Sulla declared himself dictator without a term limit-”dictator for life” and initiated a terror that far surpassed Marius’ violence: proscriptions.
Lucius Sulla as dictator: Increased Senate to 600 Restored Senate veto over plebeian assembly Forbid tribunes from offering legislation not approved by the Senate Denied Tribunes any other office Set minimum age to hold office at 42 Reduced military power of provincial governors
Gnaeus Pompeii 106-48 BC Gained recognition in Spain, 77 BC then during the insurgency of Spartacus (73-71 BC). He joined with Marcus Crassus, the richest man in Rome, In 79 bc, they marched to the gates of Rome and demanded consulships (he was 36!) As Consuls, they canceled Sulla’s “reforms” and retired.
Pompey returns... In 67 BC, the Senate asked Pompey to deal with Pirates in the Med Sea and renewed fighting with King Mithradates In 62 BC after defeating Mithradates, he returned to Rome - Pompey asked for land grants to his soldiers, which was rejected by the Senate. Such shortsightedness drove Pompey into an alliance with Julius Caesar.
Julius Caesar, 100-44 BC - Governor of Spain, returned to Rome in 60 BC- intending to run for consul-Senate said no! Teamed up with Pompey and Crassus to form the 1st Triumverate and became a consul After his term as Consul, he became governor of two northern territories (Gaul) and initiated the Gallic Wars Legacy: brought western Europe into the mainstream of civilization
Caesar’s Gallic Wars Fearing his rising power, the Senate recalled Caesar without his army! When he crossed the Rubicon river in 49 BC, he started a the second civil war Pompey was convinced by Senate leaders to come out of retirement and defend the Senate Caesar chased Pompey to Thessaly/Egypt Caesar returned to Rome in 46 BC
Caesar: “dictator for life” Pardoned Senators but raised members to 900 Gave public land to his soldiers and the poor Granted citizenship to provinces Raised pay of soldiers Reorganized town governments and the courts Lowered taxes on provinces Started building projects
Caesar’s assassination and the 2 nd Triumverate March 15, 44 BC Marc Antony joined with Octavian (Ceasar’s nephew) and Lepidus to defeat assassins & other conspirators Both Antony and Octavian wanted to be number 1 – thus ending the 2 nd Triumverate!
13 years of civil war between Marc Antony and Octavian Caesar The Battle of Actium 31 BC Cleopatra and Antony fled to Egypt where they committed suicide
Augustus, 27 BC Octavian became Augustus by Senate decree Created a bureaucracy to oversee grain supply and distribution, water supply, public buildings, tax collection, city watch among many other things His policies laid the foundation for 200 years of peace and prosperity-”the Pax Romana.”