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Turbulent Times Before the Roman Civil War 1. People to Know time period dominated by a few important political figures contest for power political and.

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Presentation on theme: "Turbulent Times Before the Roman Civil War 1. People to Know time period dominated by a few important political figures contest for power political and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Turbulent Times Before the Roman Civil War 1

2 People to Know time period dominated by a few important political figures contest for power political and social unrest 2

3 Cicero Born in 106 BC in Arpinum No one in his family had held offices in Rome – he is a “novus homō” – a new man to the government In 63 BC he is consul and uncovers a conspiracy to overthrow the government Is best known as an orator, writer and senator His letters to his friend Atticus give us a daily account of what took place in Rome at this turbulent time. 3

4 Gaius Julius Caesar Born in 100 BC Was a Populares – wanted to help the people not the aristocracy Enters politics about 78 BC 60 BC begins an alliance with Pompey and Crassus – First Triumvirate 59 BC – holds consulship In Gaul from BC – conquers huge expanses of territory – loyal army 4

5 Pompey Born 106 BC, dies 48 BC consul three times celebrates three military triumphs began military career in Sulla’s army military campaigns against pirates, Sicily, Africa, around Black Sea 60 BC- First Triumvirate with Caesar and Crassus Was an Optimate, who supported the Senate and aristocracy 5

6 Crassus 115 BC – 53 BC Roman politician and general wealthiest man in Rome and one of the richest of all time gains political power by putting down a slave revolt 70 BC- consulship of Pompey and Crassus First Triumvirate with Pompey and Caesar 6

7 78-71 BC 78Death of Sulla 77Pompey defeats political rivals in defense of Sulla 76Attempts to restore power to Tribunes 75 Lex Aurelia- allows Tribunes to hold later offices, Cicero Quaestor 74 Rome acquires Bithynia and Cyrene, fights pirates 73 Rising of Spartacus and slave revolt 72Spartacus continues revolt; Pompey’s rival assassinated 71 Spartacus defeated by Crassus; Pompey returns from fighting 7

8 70-64 BC 70Consulship of Crassus and Pompey 67 Lex Gabinia gives Pompey extraordinary command to defeat pirates 66 Lex Manilia gives Pompey command against Mithridates 65 Crassus becomes Censor; Pompey campaigns in Caucuses 64 Pompey fights in Syria 8

9 63 BC Cicero becomes consul Caesar elected Pontifex Maximus Birth of Octavian (Augustus) Catilinarian conspiracy and executions 9

10 62-58 BC 62 Clodius profanes Bona Dea festival; Pompey conquers East 61Pompey’s triumph; Caesar governor of further Spain Allogbroges revolt 60 Caesar returns from Spain First Triumvirate 59 Caesar is consul Pompey marries Julia Caesar receives Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum 58Cicero exiled Caesar defeats Helvetii 10

11 57-55 BC 57 Riots in Rome between Clodius and Milo Return of Cicero Pompey concerned with food supply Caesar defeats Belgae and Nervii 56disagree among triumviri Cicero attacks Caesar’s land law Caesar campaigns against Veniti and Morini 552 nd Consulship of Pompey and Crassus Caesar massacres 2 tribes and invades Britian 11

12 54-53 BC 54 Pompey governs Spain remotely (from Rome) death of Julia Riots in Rome Caesar’s 2 nd British expedition Crassus prepares for Parthian campaigns 53 more riots Crassus defeated and killed Caesar partly pacifies Gaul 12

13 53-50 BC 52 Milo kills Clodius Pompey sole consul Gauls revolt under Vercingetorix 51 Optimate attacks on Caesar 50 Senate vetoes proposal for Pompey and Caesar to disarm Senate asks Pompey to save the state Tribunes leave Rome Caesar crosses Rubicon into Italy 13


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