2 ImperialismRomans were committed to a policy of imperialism-establishing control over foreign lands and peoples.Other conquestsMacedoniaGreeceAsia MinorProvinces
3 Social and Economic Effect Rome starts to become the center of the world, because of all of the riches.Wealthy Roman family’s establish Latifundia-huge estates
4 Negative EffectsRome was becoming very rich, but this led to the economic gap between rich and poor to increase.Small farmers could not compete with the latifundias and their slave labor.Angry mobs start to riot
5 Attempts at ReformTwo young patrician brothers named Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus start political reformTiberius - distribute land to the poorGaius- buy grain for the poor, by using public funds.
6 Decline of the Republic Rome was unable to resolve its problems peacefully and civil wars ignite.Slave uprisingsArmy loyalty shifts to generals themselves instead of to Rome
7 SpartacusSpartacus was born in Thrace, became a soldier, and was captured by the Romans. He was sold as a slave to be made a gladiator.
8 SpartacusWith 70 comrades, he escaped, hid on Mount Vesuvius, and raised a large army of rebel slaves.With his army he defeated two Roman legions.
9 SpartacusSpartacus intended to lead slaves over the Alps and to go home, but the slaves encouraged him to march on Rome.
10 SpartacusA fresh Roman army under Crassus finally defeated Spartacus and his men. After his defeat, 6000 men were crucified as a warning to other slaves.
11 A Weakening Republic By 133 BC the Roman Republic faced many problems. Social War breaks out in 91 BC and bloodshed resulted finally in Rome (Senate) gaining control of the allied cities that had rebelled
12 Julius Caesar's rise to power Out of the chaos, rose Julius Caesar an ambitious military commander.The Republic starts to weaken as a result of the events that take place during Caesar’s rise
13 First Triumvirate Triumvirate means “rule by three” Caesar joins Gaius Pompey and Licinius Crassus as the first triumvirate.Caesar knew that with a loyal army behind him he could gain control of Rome
14 Caesar’s ActionsCrassus dies in battle in 53 BC and Pompey is declared sole consul.Weary of Caesar’s power he orders him back to Rome without his army.Caesar refuses
15 ContinuedInstead, Caesar marches towards Rome with his army and Pompey flees to Greece.Crossing the Rubicon“The die is cast”Caesar and his conquest in Gaul (France)Cleopatra’s appointment to the throne in Egypt.
16 The Rule of CaesarCaesar increases the Senate to 900 members, but reduced it’s power after being declared dictator for life.Senator’s begin to revolt. Led by Gaius Cassius and Marcus BrutusMarch 15, the Ides of March-44 BC. The conspirators kill Caesar in the Senate
17 “Et tu Brute”These were believed to be Caesar’s last words which means even you Brutus.He really said, “and thou Brutus, my child!Caesar believed that Brutus was his son, he had an affair with Brutus’s mother lasting some twenty years.
18 AfterwardsAfter Caesar’s death, he intended for his grandnephew Octavian to take the thrown.A struggle for power however broke out
19 Second TriumvirateOctavian (19), Marc Antony (General), and Lepidus, Caesar’s second in command make the second triumvirateMarc Antony along with Octavian begin to hunt down the conspirators.
20 Antony and his conquests Antony led an army east, re-conquering Syria and Asia Minor from the armies of Brutus and Cassius. Then he joined his ally Cleopatra in Egypt.Octavian forced Lepidus to retire.
21 Antony and Octavian Antony and Octavian divided the Roman world. Antony took the east, and Octavian the west.Octavian persuaded the Senate to declare war on Antony and CleopatraOctavian defeats Antony’s forces in Alexandria and Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide.
22 Augustus (63 BC to 14 AD)Octavian learned from Caesar’s mistakes, and did not present himself as an emperor.Senate gave Octavian the name Augustus “the revered one”Augustus Caesar (Octavian)