Presentation on theme: "World War II From Appeasement to Victory. Q.O.D. #13 2/4/10 Why did Japan see the United States as an enemy? Why did the United States end its isolationist."— Presentation transcript:
Q.O.D. #13 2/4/10 Why did Japan see the United States as an enemy? Why did the United States end its isolationist policy? -The U.S. attempted to stop Japanese aggression in Asia by banning the sale of war materials. This hampered the Japanese expansion in Asia, which angered Japan. - The U.S. was directly attacked at Pearl Harbor and declared war on Japan.
Yalta Conference Stalin wanted control of Eastern Europe, Churchill and Roosevelt wanted self-determination Needed Stalin to help win the war Big Three agreed: USSR would enter the war against Japan after Germany surrendered USSR would be given some territory in Asia Germany would be divided into four zones to be governed by the USSR, Britain, U.S. and France Stalin agreed to hold free elections in Europe
War in Europe In December 1944, the Germans made one last attempt to win a major victory in the Battle of the Bulge, the largest battle ever fought by U.S. Forces. Despite early German success, the Allies were victorious. During the Battle the 101st Airborne Division held the key town of Bastogne, despite being completely surrounded. By early 1945 Nazi defeat was imminent Nazis March 1945: Allies crossed the Rhine into western Germany Soviets were closing in on Berlin. The Soviets captured Berlin at the cost of over 81,000 battle deaths, and thousands of other casualties.
Allied Generals Georgy Zhukov Charles De GaulleBernard Law Montgomery Dwight D. Eisenhower Omar N. Bradley George S. Patton
Elbe River In late April 1945, Americans advancing from the west and Soviets coming from the east met at the Elbe River in Germany
War in Europe Italy: Guerillas captured and killed Mussolini Germany: As the Soviets closed in on Berlin, Hitler committed suicide in his bunker on April 30, 1945. May 7: Germany surrendered. May 8: V-E Day (Victory in Europe) Many factors contributed to Nazi defeat: Nazis had to fight on several fronts Hitler made bad decisions Underestimated the USSR (1 out of every 10 Wermacht soldiers was killed by the Soviets). The productive capacity of the U.S.
War in Asia Japan controlled much of Southeast Asia by mid-1942. May 1942: Bataan Death March Japanese defeated the Allied troops at Bataan, the Philippines and the American Maj. King surrendered (against the orders of Gen. MacArthur). 72,000 prisoners were forced to march 61 miles and endured random beatings and were denied food and water. 54,000 made it to Camp O’Donnell
War in Asia Coral Sea Midway Decisive victory for U.S. Superior communications Knew Japanese were coming and were ready Code Breakers Guadalcanal: beginning of “island-hopping” campaign Goal to recapture some Japanese held islands while skipping others. Served as stepping stones to the next objective
Famous Navy Ships U.S.S. Missouri U.S.S. Intrepid U.S.S. Essex Pt 109
Island Hopping in the Pacific U.S. forces in the Pacific, led by General Douglas MacArthur, moved north toward Japan U.S. Navy, led by Admiral Chester Nimitz, was blockading Japan British were fighting Japanese in Burma and Malaya
Key Battles in the Pacific American and Australian soldiers re-captured much of New Guinea, the Aleutian Islands, and the Philippines. American Marines were victorious at Tarawa, Saipan, Pelileu, Guam, Tinian, and Iwo Jima, enduring terrible casualties in each campaign. Combined Marine and Army forces captured Okinawa, in one of the bloodiest battles of the war. Important Naval victories included Midway, Leyte Gulf, Philippines Sea, and many more. In each battle the Japanese were extremely reluctant to surrender, often fighting to death. To attack the U.S. Navy, the Japanese used Kamikaze pilots, men who intentionally flew their planes on suicide missions, crashing directly into American ships.
Atomic Bomb Japanese would not surrender for any reason In 1944 Japanese introduced kamikazes Military planned invasion, but it would be costly Group of scientists had been working on the Manhattan Project They could create the most powerful explosion ever known by splitting atoms President Truman decided to use the bomb
Hiroshima and Nagasaki August 6, 1945: American plane dropped an atomic bomb on city of Hiroshima Instantly killed more than 70,000 Japanese did not surrender August 8: USSR declared war on Japan August 9: Second bomb dropped on Nagasaki 40,000 killed August 10: Japan surrendered, but it was not agreeable. August 15: The terms of surrender were agreeable. September 2, 1945: formal peace treaty signed on USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay