1 TOWARD VICTORY! Chapter 18 Section 4 pp. 485-488 Adapted from a presentation by Molly Sughroue 2012
2 Setting the Scene….Although the United States Army and the Filipino defense forces had battled to keep the Japanese out of the island chain, they had not been successful.Thousands of Allied civilians (men, women, and children) were being help in prison camps throughout the islandsAllied Troops found that the war in the Southeast Asia and Pacific areas were very different than those in Europe – most were fought at sea, on tiny islands, or in deep jungles.
3 War in the PacificJapan controlled much Southeast Asia and many Pacific islandsMay 1942, Japanese gained control of the Philippines, killing several hundred American soldier and 10,000 Filipino soldiers during the 68-mile Bataan Death March“heat, dust, starvation, thirst, flies, filth, murder, torture, and corpses”Many Filipino risked and sometimes wasted their lives trying to give food and water to captives on the march
4 War in the Pacific Continued June, United States warships and airplanes damaged two Japanese fleets during the battles of the Coral Sea and Midway IslandGreatly weakened Japan, stopped their advanceU.S. marines landed at Guadalcanal, which marked the beginning of island hoppingGoal to recapture Japanese islands while bypassing othersUnited States gradually moved toward Japan.. And by 1944 the U.S. Navy was blockading Japan while American bombers pounded Japanese cities
5 The War Pressed OnIn October 1944, MacArthur began the fight to retake the Philippines while the British pushed Japanese forces back in the jungles of Burma and Malaya.The Japanese government, however, refused to surrender.. So the war pressed on.
6 The Nazis DefeatedAllied forces battled toward Germany, advancing clear into Belgium in the December of where Germany launched a massive counterattackThis became known as the Battle of the Bulge, which lasted over a month, delayed the Allied Advance, and was Hitler’s last successBut the Allies still continued their advance further into Germany….
7 Germany faced round-the-clock bombing by the Allies In one 10-day period, the huge industrial city of Hamburg was almost erased by bombing…AFTERBEFORE…
8 By March, the Allies crossed the Rhine into western Germany while Soviet troops from the east closed in on BerlinAmerican and Soviet soldiers met and shook hand at he Elbe River.Everywhere, Axis armies began to surrender.
9 The End in EuropeGuerillas captured and executed Mussolini in Italy. Meanwhile, in Berlin, Hitler knew the end of the was was near.As Soviet troops fought their way into the city, Hitler committed suicide in his underground bunkerGermany followed with surrender on May 7, and, officially, war in war in Europe ended the next dayMay 8, 1945: V-E Day (Victory In Europe)
10 Defeat of JapanAllies poured the rest of their resources into defeating JapanThough most Japanese navy and air force were destroyed by mid 1945, they still possessed an army of two million menThe road to victory remained long and costly…
11 Invasion Versus the Bomb Because the Japanese would rather fight to death than surrender, the Allies realized that invasion would cost them more than bombing the place.Though Harry Truman believed the atomic bomb to be a terrible new force for destruction, he decided using the bomb would be much more effective than invasion.
12 The Allied leaders did issue a warning to Japan to surrender or face “utter and complete destruction.” When Japan ignored the deadline, the United State decided to take action… thus causing…
13 The Bombing of Hiroshima American plane dropped atomic bomb on Hiroshima August 6, 1945Flattened four square milesKilled 70,000 peopleMore died from radiation months after
14 The Bombing of Nagasaki Soviet Union declared war on Japan August 28, but again Japanese leaders did not respond.The next day, the United States dropped a second atomic bomb on NagasakiMore then 40,000 people deadFinally on September 2, 1945, a peace treaty was signed on board the American battleship Missouri
15 An Ongoing Controversy The Atomic Bomb:Brought quick end to warBrought terrifying destructionPeople question if it should have been usedWhy did Truman use the bomb?Invasion would kill many Americans and JapaneseWanted to impress Soviet Union with U.S. power
16 American forces occupied the smoldering ruins of Japan Allies divided Hitler’s fallen empire into four zones of occupationThe war was over… but how could they avoid the mistakes of 1919 and build foundations for a stable world peace??
17 REVIEWWhat was the day called on June 6, 1944 when allies landed at Normandy and started the liberation of France?D-DayHitler’s last offense in the war?Battle of the BulgeWhat were Japanese “Divine Wind” pilots called, they flew their planes into ships?Kamikaze
18 REVIEW Who becomes the U.S. president after FDR dies? Harry TrumanHow does Hitler’s life end?He commits suicideOn August 6, 1945 what city did the U.S. drop the first Atomic Bomb on?Hiroshima
19 REVIEWThree days later after the Japanese gave no response what city did the U.S. drop the second bomb on?NagasakiWhat country surrendered aboard the USS Missouri on September ?Japan