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TOWARD VICTORY! Chapter 18 Section 4 pp

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1 TOWARD VICTORY! Chapter 18 Section 4 pp. 485-488
Adapted from a presentation by Molly Sughroue 2012

2 Setting the Scene…. Although the United States Army and the Filipino defense forces had battled to keep the Japanese out of the island chain, they had not been successful. Thousands of Allied civilians (men, women, and children) were being help in prison camps throughout the islands Allied Troops found that the war in the Southeast Asia and Pacific areas were very different than those in Europe – most were fought at sea, on tiny islands, or in deep jungles.

3 War in the Pacific Japan controlled much Southeast Asia and many Pacific islands May 1942, Japanese gained control of the Philippines, killing several hundred American soldier and 10,000 Filipino soldiers during the 68-mile Bataan Death March “heat, dust, starvation, thirst, flies, filth, murder, torture, and corpses” Many Filipino risked and sometimes wasted their lives trying to give food and water to captives on the march

4 War in the Pacific Continued
June, United States warships and airplanes damaged two Japanese fleets during the battles of the Coral Sea and Midway Island Greatly weakened Japan, stopped their advance U.S. marines landed at Guadalcanal, which marked the beginning of island hopping Goal to recapture Japanese islands while bypassing others United States gradually moved toward Japan.. And by 1944 the U.S. Navy was blockading Japan while American bombers pounded Japanese cities

5 The War Pressed On In October 1944, MacArthur began the fight to retake the Philippines while the British pushed Japanese forces back in the jungles of Burma and Malaya. The Japanese government, however, refused to surrender.. So the war pressed on.

6 The Nazis Defeated Allied forces battled toward Germany, advancing clear into Belgium in the December of where Germany launched a massive counterattack This became known as the Battle of the Bulge, which lasted over a month, delayed the Allied Advance, and was Hitler’s last success But the Allies still continued their advance further into Germany….

7 Germany faced round-the-clock bombing by the Allies
In one 10-day period, the huge industrial city of Hamburg was almost erased by bombing …AFTER BEFORE…

8 By March, the Allies crossed the Rhine into western Germany while Soviet troops from the east closed in on Berlin American and Soviet soldiers met and shook hand at he Elbe River. Everywhere, Axis armies began to surrender.

9 The End in Europe Guerillas captured and executed Mussolini in Italy. Meanwhile, in Berlin, Hitler knew the end of the was was near. As Soviet troops fought their way into the city, Hitler committed suicide in his underground bunker Germany followed with surrender on May 7, and, officially, war in war in Europe ended the next day May 8, 1945: V-E Day (Victory In Europe)

10 Defeat of Japan Allies poured the rest of their resources into defeating Japan Though most Japanese navy and air force were destroyed by mid 1945, they still possessed an army of two million men The road to victory remained long and costly…

11 Invasion Versus the Bomb
Because the Japanese would rather fight to death than surrender, the Allies realized that invasion would cost them more than bombing the place. Though Harry Truman believed the atomic bomb to be a terrible new force for destruction, he decided using the bomb would be much more effective than invasion.

12 The Allied leaders did issue a warning to Japan to surrender or face “utter and complete destruction.” When Japan ignored the deadline, the United State decided to take action… thus causing…

13 The Bombing of Hiroshima
American plane dropped atomic bomb on Hiroshima August 6, 1945 Flattened four square miles Killed 70,000 people More died from radiation months after

14 The Bombing of Nagasaki
Soviet Union declared war on Japan August 28, but again Japanese leaders did not respond. The next day, the United States dropped a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki More then 40,000 people dead Finally on September 2, 1945, a peace treaty was signed on board the American battleship Missouri

15 An Ongoing Controversy
The Atomic Bomb: Brought quick end to war Brought terrifying destruction People question if it should have been used Why did Truman use the bomb? Invasion would kill many Americans and Japanese Wanted to impress Soviet Union with U.S. power

16 American forces occupied the smoldering ruins of Japan
Allies divided Hitler’s fallen empire into four zones of occupation The war was over… but how could they avoid the mistakes of 1919 and build foundations for a stable world peace??

17 REVIEW What was the day called on June 6, 1944 when allies landed at Normandy and started the liberation of France? D-Day Hitler’s last offense in the war? Battle of the Bulge What were Japanese “Divine Wind” pilots called, they flew their planes into ships? Kamikaze

18 REVIEW Who becomes the U.S. president after FDR dies?
Harry Truman How does Hitler’s life end? He commits suicide On August 6, 1945 what city did the U.S. drop the first Atomic Bomb on? Hiroshima

19 REVIEW Three days later after the Japanese gave no response what city did the U.S. drop the second bomb on? Nagasaki What country surrendered aboard the USS Missouri on September ? Japan

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