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By Ali Barney FHS 2450 Professor Bob Banta

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1 By Ali Barney FHS 2450 Professor Bob Banta
HIV/AIDS By Ali Barney FHS 2450 Professor Bob Banta

2 What is hiv/aids?? H I V / A I D S R I B B O N
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus that causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. AIDS is the final stage of HIV disease, which causes severe damage to the immune system. HIV is a condition that can gradually destroy the immune system, which makes is harder for the body to fight infections. When this happens, the person has AIDS. H I V / A I D S R I B B O N

3 What is HIV/AIDS continued….
Human Immunodeficiency virus causes HIV infections and AIDS. The virus attacks the immune system. As the immune system weakens, the body is vulnerable to life-threatening and cancers. Once a person has the virus, it stays inside the body for life.

The virus is spread or transmitted person-to-person through sexual contact, including oral, vaginal, and anal sex. It is also transmitted through blood via blood transfusions, which is extremely rare in the U.S., or needle sharing. There is also a third way that this virus is spread. This way is from mother to child. A pregnant woman can spread the virus to her fetus through their shared blood circulation, or a nursing mother can transmit it to her baby through her breast milk. There are many people that have questions about how this disease is transmitted. This disease can only be spread through our body fluids and direct contact with those liquids. Things such as casually contact, hugging will not spread the disease. The virus is also not spread by mosquitoes, participating in sports and touching items that were touched by a person infected with the virus. BLOOD SEX NEEDLES

5 Can Hiv/aids be spread by donations??
HIV is not spread to a person who donates blood or organs. People who donate organs are never in direct contact with people who receive them. Likewise, a person who donates blood is never in contact with the person receiving it. In all these procedures, sterile needles and instruments are used. But HIV can be spread to a person receiving blood or organs from an infected donor. To reduce this risk, blood banks and organ donor programs check donors, blood and tissues thoroughly.

6 Who can catch this disease?
Not everyone will get this disease, but there are people that are at high risk of getting HIV. These people include injection drug users who share needles, infants born to mothers with HIV who did not receive HIV treatment during pregnancy, people who have unprotected sex, especially with people who have other high-risk behaviors, are HIV positive or have AIDS, people who received blood transfusions or clotting products between 1977 and 1985, before screening for the virus became standard practice, and sexual partners of those who engage in high- risk activities. After HIV infects the body, the virus has been found in saliva, tears, nervous system tissue and spinal fluid, blood, semen (including pre-seminal fluid), vaginal fluid, and breast milk. Only blood, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk have been shown to transmit infection to others.

7 symptoms There are many symptoms related to acute HIV infection. When a person is first infected, the symptoms are often flu-like. Symptoms include diarrhea, fever, headache, mouth sores (including yeast infection), muscle stiffness or aching, night sweats, rashes or different types, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands. Many people have no symptoms when they are diagnosed with HIV. Acute HIV infection progresses over a few weeks to months to become an asymptomatic HIV infection. This stage can last 10 years or longer. During this period, the person can still spread the virus to others. Almost all people infected with HIV, if they are not treated, will develop AIDS. A small group of patients develop AIDS very slowly or never at all. These patients are called nonprogressors. Many seem to have genes that prevent the virus from significantly damaging their immune system. People with AIDS have had their immune systems damaged by HIV. They are very susceptible to infections that do not normally develop in people with a healthy immune system. These infections are called opportunistic infections. Common symptoms of AIDS include chills, fever, rash, sweats, swollen lymph glands, weakness and weight loss.

8 How do you know you have it??
There are many tests that can be taken. The HIV ELISA and HIV Western blot tests detect antibodies o the HIV virus in the blood. Both tests must be positive to confirm an HIV infection. Antibodies are proteins made by the body’s immune system when it detects harmful substances, such as the HIV virus. A complete blood count and white blood cell differential may also show abnormalities. People with AIDS usually have regular blood tests to check their CD4 cell count. CD4 cells are a type of T cell. T cells are one kind of cells of the immune system. They are also called “helper cells”. A CD4 cell count that is lower than normal may be a sign that the virus is damaging the immune system. When the CD4 count gets too low, the risk of infections and some types of cancer increases. Other types of tests that may be done include, HIV RNA level to check how much virus is in the blood, a pap smear to check for cervical cancer, and anal pap smear to check for cancer of the anus.

9 Is there a cure?? There is no cure for AIDS at this time. But treatments are available to manage symptoms. Treatment can also improve the quality and length of life for those who have already developed symptoms. Antiretroviral therapy suppresses the replication of the HIV virus in the body. A combination of antiretroviral drugs, called antiretroviral therapy is very effective in reducing the amount of HIV in the bloodstream. This is measured by the viral load (how much free virus is in the blood). Preventing the virus from reproducing can improve T-cell counts and help the immune system recover from HIV infection. HIV can become resistant to one combination of ART. This is most true in patients who do not take their medications on schedule every day. Tests can check whether an HIV strain is resistant to a particular drug. This information can be useful in finding the best drug combination and for adjusting the drug combination when it starts to fail. Medicines may be prescribed to treat problems related to AIDS such as anemia, low white cell count, and to prevent opportunistic infections.

10 Complications… There are many other complications with HIV. When a person is infected with HIV, the virus slowly begins to destroy that person’s immune system. How fast this occurs differs in each individual. Treatment with ART can help slow or halt the destruction of the immune system. Once the immune system is severely damaged, that person has AIDS, and can now get infections and cancers that most healthy people would not get. Doctors have found that when CD4 falls below certain counts, specific types of infections and cancers can develop.

11 How can I prevent hiv/aids??
To prevent HIV/AIDS, do not use illegal drugs and do not share needles or syringes. Many communities now have needle exchange programs where you can get rid of used syringes and get ne sterile ones. You could also avoid contact with another person’s blood. If possible, wear protective clothing, masks, and goggles when caring for people who are injured. If people test positive for HIV, they can pass the virus on to others and should not donate blood, plasma, body organs, or sperm. HIV-positive women who plan to get pregnant should talk to their health care provider about the risk to their unborn child. They should also discuss methods to prevent their baby from becoming infected, such as taking medicines during pregnancy. Breastfeeding should also be avoided to prevent passing on HIV to infants through breast milk. Safer sex practices, such as using latex condoms, are effective on preventing HIV transmission. But there is a risk of getting the infection, even with the use of condoms. Abstinence is the only sure way to prevent sexual transmission of HIV. HIV-positive patients who are taking antiretroviral medicines are less likely to transmit the virus.

12 Conclusion If you believe that you have been exposed to HIV, seek medical attention right away. Do not delay! Starting antiviral medicines can reduce the chances that you will be infected. This is called post- exposure prophylaxis (PEP). It has been used to prevent transmission in health care workers injured by needle sticks, and it can help you. Look into the different procedures that can be taken if you are infected. And the best thing to do is not spread it to others. Stay abstinent and try to get yourself treated.

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