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HIV and AIDS: Protecting Yourself, Protecting Others David Lee, Mollie Williams, and Andrew Frankart
What is HIV? Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HIV vs. AIDS HIV ◦Infection itself ◦Multiple stages AIDS ◦Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome ◦Last stage of HIV infection ◦Defined by HIV diagnosis, cell counts, and presence of specific diseases
Ways to Spread HIV Body fluids containing virus ◦Semen ◦Vaginal fluids ◦Breast milk ◦Blood Methods of transmission ◦Sexual contact ◦Breastfeeding ◦Pregnancy and birth ◦Blood transfusions ◦Injection drug use
Risk of Spread by Method Sexual intercourse: Female-to-male transmission1 in 700 to 1 in 3,000 Male-to-female transmission1 in 200 to 1 in 2,000 Male-to-male transmission1 in 10 to 1 in 1,600 Blood exposure: Needle stick (with AZT PEP)1 in 200 (1 in 10,000) Needle sharing1 in 150 Transfusion of infected blood95 in 100 Mother-infant transmission: Without AZT treatment1 in 4 With AZT treatment<1 in 10 Combination antiretroviral therapy<1 in 50 Royce, Sena, Cates and Cohen, NEJM 336:1072-1078, 1997
Symptoms of Infection Acute Infection ◦70% of infected people experience symptoms similar to the flu or mononucleosis Fever Sore throat Headaches Swollen lymph nodes ◦Lasts one to four weeks Asymptomatic HIV Disease Stage ◦Untreated people can seem healthy for a range of 0.5 to 11 years
Symptoms of Infection Chronic Symptomatic HIV Disease Stage ◦Wide range of effects Fever Weight loss Fatigue Abdominal issues AIDS ◦Numerous types of patient experiences ◦Severely damaged immune system ◦Susceptible to many diseases
Opportunistic Infections Range of conditions that may appear more often in people with damaged immune systems, including: ◦Kaposi’s sarcoma ◦Tuberculosis ◦Pneumonia ◦Candidiasis ◦Invasive Cervical Cancer
Preventing the Spread of HIV Abstinence Being faithful Condoms
Testing 97% chance of detecting HIV after three months Types of HIV Testing: ◦Antibody Tests (Blood, Oral Fluid, or Urine Sample) Enzyme immunoassays (Up to 2 weeks) Rapid HIV Antibody (10 – 20 minutes) ◦Antigen Tests (Blood Sample) From 1 – 3 weeks after possible infection ◦Polymerase Chain Reaction Test Identifies genetic material of HIV in blood within 2-3 weeks of infection
Where to Obtain Testing HIV Tests are available at: ◦Local health department ◦Public health clinics Elm Street Health Center (0.59 miles) Price Hill Health Center (1.26 miles) ◦Doctor’s office ◦AIDS service organizations ◦Planned Parenthood
Treatment Despite the lack of a complete cure, HIV can still be treated. Treated with combination drug therapies, also known as “cocktails.” Functions of drug therapies include: ◦Inhibiting HIV from entering and infecting white blood cells. ◦Prevent HIV from replicating and creating new HIV viruses.
Treatment ◦Most HIV treatment consists of taking 3 different antiretroviral medications, from 2 different classes of drugs Protects against drug resistance Will control the amount of virus in your body and protect your immune system The various drugs will act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.
Where to Obtain Treatment University of Cincinnati Infectious Disease Center ◦Provides primary and consultative care University Hospital Center for Emergency Care, HIV Early Prevention Program ◦HIV testing and counseling programs for both walk-in and registered patients STOP AIDS ◦Provides outreach, education, and medical case management services for HIV-positive patients
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