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Chapter 25 HIV/AIDS and STIs

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1 Chapter 25 HIV/AIDS and STIs
Lessons Three and Four HIV/AIDS and Treatment Pgs

2 AIDS and HIV AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), a disease in which the immune system is weakened HIV is the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and it attacks the immune system In 2000, AIDS was the fifth leading cause of death among adults ages 25-44

3 Teens at Risk The overall rate of new cases of HIV has fallen since 1985, but there has been no decline in the number of youth ages 13 to 24 that are diagnosed Teens have one of the fastest growing rates of HIV infection HIV can be prevented by abstaining from sexual activity and injecting drugs

4 HIV and the Human Body HIV invades cells of the immune system. The virus takes over the cells and destroys them. The new virus infect other cells and the process continues to repeat. The immune system is less capable of preventing infections and cancer. The individual will suffer one illness after another. HIV does not necessarily mean a person has AIDS. AIDS is the advanced stage of HIV.

5 HIV and the Human Body HIV causes the body to be susceptible to other infections Opportunistic infections occur in individuals who do not have healthy immune systems Cancer often develops as a result of HIV

6 How HIV is Transmitted HIV lives inside cells and body fluids. It does not survive well in the air or on surfaces such as telephones and toilets It cannot be transmitted through food HIV can only be transmitted by an infected person through blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk

7 HIV Transmission Sexual contact (intercourse and oral sex)
Needles for drug use. Contaminated needles can send HIV directly into the bloodstream. A pregnant mother with HIV can pass it to her baby through umbilical cord blood and during delivery. HIV can also be passed through breast milk

8 HIV Transmission HIV has NOT been shown to be spread through:
Insect bites Sweat Sneezing Casual physical contact like shaking hands and hugging

9 Stages of HIV HIV develops in stages over several years.
About half of all people with HIV develop symptoms about 3 to 6 weeks after becoming infected. Symptoms include fever, rash, headache, body aches, and swollen glands. These symptoms will disappear and are often mistaken as a flu

10 Asymptomatic Stage After the flulike symptoms disappear, a person enters the asymptomatic stage. During this stage there are no symptoms The asymptomatic stage can last anywhere from 6 months to 10 years Even though no symptoms are present, the virus continues to grow and the person can infect others.

11 Symptomatic HIV Infection
The symptomatic stage is marked when infections start to take over. Symptoms occur as a result of a severe drop in immune cells. The symptoms may include swollen glands, weight loss, and rashes

12 AIDS AIDS is the latter stage of the HIV infection. The immune system is damaged and there are one or more opportunistic infections or illnesses. By the time AIDS develops, HIV has often attacked brain cells, causing difficulty in thinking and remembering

13 Detecting HIV EIA Test EIA Test-a blood test that screens for the presence of antibodies The EIA may give inaccurate results for two reasons: 1. The test could come back negative in the early stages because the antibodies have not developed yet. 2. Other health conditions can cause a false positive reading.

14 Detecting HIV Western Blot Test
The Western Blot Test is the most common test for HIV used in the U.S. If done properly, it is 100% accurate

15 Health Services Back in the 1980’s there were no treatments for HIV
Since then, many medications are used to treat HIV and prevent complications There is still no cure for HIV/AIDS but treatment can extend and improve the quality of life

16 Abstinence and HIV/AIDS
Avoid drug use or the pressure to engage in sexual activity Leave parties where things get out of control Practice refusal skills Choose your relationships carefully. Don’t date people who you know are sexually active. Avoid drug users.

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