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The Female Reproductive system

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Presentation on theme: "The Female Reproductive system"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Female Reproductive system
Prepares eggs for possible fertilization Contains structures to enable fertilization to occur and house & nourish a developing baby

2 Functions and structure
Reproductive organs: Ovaries Produce and store Ova-egg cells Fewer than 500 released in a lifetime Average 1 egg about every 28 days During Puberty: Hypothalamus stimulates the release of hormones from the pituitary gland Pituitary gland stimulates cells in ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone

3 Function & structure Estrogen:
Causes reproductive system to complete its development Helps produce secondary sex characteristics Breast enlargement Widening of hips Body hair Reproductive organs mature Progesterone: Responsible for preparing body for pregnancy and if it occurs, to maintain body until birth Occurs after ovulation Prepares endometrium for possible pregnancy Inhibits new Ova development

4 Female reproductive Organs
Ovulation: Early teen year-immature Ova mature Ovaries begin process of releasing 1 mature ovum(monthly) Ovaries rotate (take turns) release of ovum Fallopian Tubes: Passage for released ovum(egg) from ovaries Provide a way for egg to travel from ovary to uterus Sperm cell present in fallopian tube may unite with ovum Zygote-cell that results from the union of sperm & ovum Uterus: (Womb) The size of a pear-increases 20x Houses developing offspring Once formed, zygote leaves fallopian tubes-travels to uterus, then attaches to the uterus wall Endometrium lines the uterus

5 Female reproductive Organs
Cervix: Lower entrance to the uterus Controls the opening of the uterus Vagina: Birth canal Male sperm enters through the vagina Muscular/elastic passageway Extends from the cervix to the outside of the body Vulva: External structure Includes the Labia The Labia is folds of skin that cover & protect the opening to the female reproductive system



8 Menstruation (menstrual cycle)
Each month the uterus prepares to receive & nourish an embryo Takes an average of 28 days to complete the cycle 4 stages occur in the uterus each month: Follicular stage: 14 days Ovulation: 3 to 4 days Luteal Phase: 14 days Menstrual Fluid: 2 to 8 day

9 Menstruation Follicular Stage Ovulation Endometrium grows thicker to prepare to receive fertilized egg Last around 14 days Egg is released into fallopian tubes awaiting fertilization Egg survives about 48 hours to 72 hours Male sperm can survive only about 48 hours

10 Menstruation Luteal Phase Menstrual Fluid 14 days
Endometrium becomes thicker No fertilized egg present cause the endometrium to break down and is discharged Lasts 2- 8 days Result of breakdown Sanitary pads or tampons are used to absorb the blood flow

11 Factors that influence Menstruation
Most females begin menstruation between 10 & 15 years of age May be irregular at first Hormones control the cycle but poor nutrition, stress, weight gain also affect it. Problems related to menstruation include: Cramps: Exercise & a heating pad can help-a Dr. may prescribe medication if needed Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) Variety of symptoms Many do not experience this but can cause: nervous tension, anxiety, mood swings, depression, and fatigue Cause is not completely understood but good nutrition & regular exercise may reduce the severity of symptoms Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) Most often occurs between years old Rare but fatal condition-Hygiene is a must

12 Care of the female reproductive system
Good hygiene Breast self-Examination (monthly) Mammogram Pap Test helps determine uterus & cervical cancer Pelvic exam checks for size, shape, & position of pelvic organs

13 Problems that can cause Infertility
Blocked fallopian tube Leading cause of infertility May result from PID or abdominal surgery Endometriosis 2nd leading cause of infertility Uterine tissue grows outside the uterus Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Infection of fallopian tubes, ovaries, & surrounding areas Ovarian Cysts Small ones can dissolve themselves Larger ones are typically removes surgically Cancer of the Cervix & Uterus (HPV) PAP test Breast Cancer Early detection helps for successful treatment Early sexual activity & family history related to incidence of cervical cancer PAP test performed every 1-2 years after the age of 18 years old

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