3Female Reproductive Organs The organs of the female reproductive system enable pregnancy to occur with the first monthly ovulation.The female reproductive system matures at puberty.
4Female Reproductive Organs The female reproductive system has several functions, including producing female sex hormones and storing the eggs.Eggs or OvaFemale gametes(reproductive cells)
5Female Reproductive Organs A female at birth has more than 400,000 immature ova in her ovaries.OvariesThe female sex glands that store the ova, or eggs, and produce female sex hormones.Born with 400,000+ immature ova.
6Female Reproductive Organs The ovaries are located on each side of the uterus.UterusThe hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ that nourishes and protects a fertilized ovum until birth
7Female Reproductive Organs The process of ovulation is controlled by the release of luteinizing hormone by the pituitary gland.OvulationThe process of releasing a mature ovum into the fallopian tube each month
8Female Reproductive Organs A mature ovum is released from an ovary and moves into one of the two fallopian tubes.Fallopian tubesA pair of tubes with fingerlike projections that draw in the ovum
9Female Reproductive Organs CervixThe cervix is the opening of the uterus.The uterus protects and nourishes a developing fetus.UterusThe ovaries contain ova and produce hormones.OvariesOva travel to the uterus through the fallopian tubes.Fallopian TubesEndometriumThickened lining of the uterus.The passageway from the uterus to the outside of the body.Vagina
10Female Reproductive Organs Sperm from the male enter the female reproductive system through the vagina.VaginaA muscular, elastic passageway that extends from the uterus to the outside of the body
13Female Reproductive Organs The fertilization of an egg by a sperm produces a cell called a zygote.When the zygote leaves the fallopian tube, it enters the uterus and attaches itself to the uterine wall. The fetus remains in the uterus until birth.
14Female Reproductive Organs After a female matures, the uterus prepares each month for possible pregnancy. If pregnancy doesn’t occur, menstruation occurs.MenstruationThe shedding of the uterine lining
15Female Reproductive Organs The endometrium tissues pass through the cervix and into the vagina.CervixThe opening to the uterus
16Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH): PITUITARY HORMONESFollicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH): stimulates ovary to produce estrogen,which triggers an ovum (egg cell) to matureLuteinizing Hormone (LH): stimulates ovary to produce progesterone responsible for ovulation
17Menstruation ~ 28 day cycle Cycle starts with the 1st day of the menstruationDays 1-8Endometrium breaks down into blood, tissues and fluid and flow out of the vagina.“periods” usually last 4-8 days, varies
18MenstruationDays 9-13The hormones FSH & LH signal:- an egg to mature- the uterus to get ready to receive a newegg: the lining (endometrium) starts tothicken, and blood & nutrients flow intothe uterus to protect the fertilized egg(zygote)
19MenstruationDays 14-21Ovulation occurs – Mature egg is released from the ovary and travels down fallopian tubeJust before ovulation, cervix releases “mucous” which helps the sperm move towards the egg.If egg is not met with a sperm cell than the egg begins to dissolve.
20MenstruationDays 21-28Egg travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus.If the egg is not fertilized than the uterus no longer needs the extra blood & nutrients.A change in hormone levels signals the blood vessels to cut off the blood supply.The blood dissolves and leaves the body through the vagina as the next cycle begins (Day 1).
21Female Reproductive Organs Let’s look at the cycle
23Maintaining Reproductive Health Good hygiene, breast self-exams, and abstinence from sexual activity help female reproductive system health.Sound health practices will help females care for their reproductive systems.
24Maintaining Reproductive Health Tips for Maintaining Your Reproductive HealthBathe regularly.Have regular medical exams.Practice abstinence.
25Breast Self-ExamBreast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of death, after lung cancer, for women in the United States.
27Breast Self-ExamThe American Cancer Society recommends that females examine their breasts once a month, right after the menstrual period, when breasts are not tender.Early detection is critical for successful treatment of breast cancer.
28Female Reproductive System Problems Several disorders can affect the female reproductive system, and some can lead to infertility.While menstrual cramps and premenstrual syndrome are common, toxic shock syndrome is uncommon.
29Female Reproductive System Problems Menstrual CrampsCramps that occur at the beginning of a menstrual periodPremenstrual SyndromeA disorder caused by hormonal changesToxic Shock SyndromeA rare but serious bacterial infection that affects the immune system and the liver
30Infertility and Other Disorders Infertility in females can have several causes.EndometriosisUterine tissue grows outside the uterusSTDsDiseases spread through sexual contactInfection that causes discharge, odor, pain, itching, or burningVaginitisOvarian cystsFluid-filled sacs on the ovaryCancerCancer of the cervix, uterus, or ovaries
32After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary What is the function of the uterus?The uterus protects and nourishes a developing fetus.
33After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary Distinguish between ova, ovaries, and ovulation.The ova are egg cells. The ovaries are the female sex glands that store the ova and produce female sex hormones. Ovulation is the process of releasing a mature ovum into a fallopian tube each month.
34After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary Identify a kind of cancer of the female reproductive system that is linked to a sexually transmitted disease (STD).Cervical cancer