Female Reproductive Organs The organs of the female reproductive system enable pregnancy to occur with the first monthly ovulation. The female reproductive system matures at puberty.
Female Reproductive Organs The female reproductive system has several functions, including producing female sex hormones and storing the eggs. Eggs or Ova Female gametes (reproductive cells)
Female Reproductive Organs A female at birth has more than 400,000 immature ova in her ovaries. Ovaries The female sex glands that store the ova, or eggs, and produce female sex hormones. Born with 400,000+ immature ova.
Female Reproductive Organs The ovaries are located on each side of the uterus. Uterus The hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ that nourishes and protects a fertilized ovum until birth
Female Reproductive Organs The process of ovulation is controlled by the release of luteinizing hormone by the pituitary gland. Ovulation The process of releasing a mature ovum into the fallopian tube each month
Female Reproductive Organs A mature ovum is released from an ovary and moves into one of the two fallopian tubes. Fallopian tubes A pair of tubes with fingerlike projections that draw in the ovum
Female Reproductive Organs Cervix Uterus Ovaries Fallopian Tubes Endometrium Vagina The cervix is the opening of the uterus. The uterus protects and nourishes a developing fetus. The ovaries contain ova and produce hormones. Ova travel to the uterus through the fallopian tubes. Thickened lining of the uterus. The passageway from the uterus to the outside of the body.
Female Reproductive Organs Sperm from the male enter the female reproductive system through the vagina. Vagina A muscular, elastic passageway that extends from the uterus to the outside of the body
The Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
Female Reproductive Organs The fertilization of an egg by a sperm produces a cell called a zygote. When the zygote leaves the fallopian tube, it enters the uterus and attaches itself to the uterine wall. The fetus remains in the uterus until birth.
Female Reproductive Organs After a female matures, the uterus prepares each month for possible pregnancy. If pregnancy doesn’t occur, menstruation occurs. Menstruation The shedding of the uterine lining
Female Reproductive Organs The endometrium tissues pass through the cervix and into the vagina. Cervix The opening to the uterus
PITUITARY HORMONES Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH): stimulates ovary to produce estrogen, which triggers an ovum (egg cell) to mature Luteinizing Hormone (LH): stimulates ovary to produce progesterone responsible for ovulation
Menstruation ~ 28 day cycle Cycle starts with the 1st day of the menstruation Days 1-8 Endometrium breaks down into blood, tissues and fluid and flow out of the vagina. “periods” usually last 4-8 days, varies
Menstruation Days 9-13 The hormones FSH & LH signal: - an egg to mature - the uterus to get ready to receive a new egg: the lining (endometrium) starts to thicken, and blood & nutrients flow into the uterus to protect the fertilized egg (zygote)
Menstruation Days Ovulation occurs – Mature egg is released from the ovary and travels down fallopian tube Just before ovulation, cervix releases “mucous” which helps the sperm move towards the egg. If egg is not met with a sperm cell than the egg begins to dissolve.
Menstruation Days Egg travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus. If the egg is not fertilized than the uterus no longer needs the extra blood & nutrients. A change in hormone levels signals the blood vessels to cut off the blood supply. The blood dissolves and leaves the body through the vagina as the next cycle begins (Day 1).
Female Reproductive Organs Let’s look at the cycle
Maintaining Reproductive Health Good hygiene, breast self-exams, and abstinence from sexual activity help female reproductive system health. Sound health practices will help females care for their reproductive systems.
Maintaining Reproductive Health Practice abstinence. Have regular medical exams. Bathe regularly. Tips for Maintaining Your Reproductive Health
Breast Self-Exam Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of death, after lung cancer, for women in the United States.
Normal Anatomy Cancerous Cell
Breast Self-Exam The American Cancer Society recommends that females examine their breasts once a month, right after the menstrual period, when breasts are not tender. Early detection is critical for successful treatment of breast cancer.
Female Reproductive System Problems Several disorders can affect the female reproductive system, and some can lead to infertility. While menstrual cramps and premenstrual syndrome are common, toxic shock syndrome is uncommon.
Female Reproductive System Problems Menstrual Cramps Cramps that occur at the beginning of a menstrual period Premenstrual Syndrome A disorder caused by hormonal changes Toxic Shock Syndrome A rare but serious bacterial infection that affects the immune system and the liver
Infertility and Other Disorders Endometriosis STDs Vaginitis Ovarian cysts Cancer Uterine tissue grows outside the uterus Diseases spread through sexual contact Infection that causes discharge, odor, pain, itching, or burning Fluid-filled sacs on the ovary Cancer of the cervix, uterus, or ovaries Infertility in females can have several causes.
After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary The uterus protects and nourishes a developing fetus. 1.What is the function of the uterus?
After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary 2.Distinguish between ova, ovaries, and ovulation. The ova are egg cells. The ovaries are the female sex glands that store the ova and produce female sex hormones. Ovulation is the process of releasing a mature ovum into a fallopian tube each month.
After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary 3.Identify a kind of cancer of the female reproductive system that is linked to a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Cervical cancer