Presentation on theme: "Revising your ICE Essay Tips to avoid Fragments & Run- On Sentences."— Presentation transcript:
Revising your ICE Essay Tips to avoid Fragments & Run- On Sentences
What is a Fragment? First, let’s define a sentence. What are the three things that make up a complete sentence? ▫Subject ▫Verb ▫Complete thought A fragment is a phrase that lacks one of these elements; it cannot be a complete sentence.
Evaluate the following to determine if each one is a complete sentence or a frament: PhraseWhat’s Missing I ran. Running to the store. If I run fast. Running is fun. Although I ran fast. NOTHING! Missing a subject or a verb Missing a complete thought NOTHING! Missing a complete thought
Certain conjunctions can cause a sentence to lack a complete thought. These are called subordinating conjunctions. Think back to the previous examples: ▫If I run fast. Although I ran fast. Which words are conjunctions? IFALTHOUGH Can you name some other subordinating conjunctions?
Punctuating Sentences with Subordinating Conjunctions How do you punctuate the following sentences? ▫You take the risk of failing if you always skip class. ▫If you miss class you should always contact your instructor. ▫We should lower the legal drinking age because eighteen year olds are already considered adults. ▫Because it could increase car accidents we should not lower the drinking age.
Punctuating Sentences with Subordinating Conjunctions Never use a comma when a subordinating conjunction falls between two independent clauses (or complete thoughts). When a subordinating conjunction comes at the beginning of a sentence, always use a comma between the two complete thoughts.
Run-On What’s the definition for a run on? Is this a run-on? ▫Before the sun came up this morning, I was sleeping soundly in my bed dreaming about winning the Mega Millions lottery that the news channels have been promoting for days, but I was disappointed to find it was only a dream when my cat jumped on my head and woke me up. What about this? ▫I ran far I got tired.
Run-On Myth: A run-on is a sentence that is too long. Fact: A run can be long or short; it is simply two sentences joined together with out the proper punctuation or conjunction.
There are five ways to fix a run-on. Look at the following sentences, and see if you can fix the mistakes in different ways. Then we’ll review the different ways to correct a run-on sentence. (Some of these sentences may already be correct so read carefully!) I like ice cream chocolate is my favorite. Sometimes I like vanilla ice cream sometimes I like chocolate. She missed school yesterday she missed the bus. John sprained his ankle when he ran to catch the bus. The bus driver stopped the bus he helped John get on. If I don’t get up early enough, I won’t be able to catch the bus I will be late to school.
You can add a period between two complete sentences to fix a run-on. ▫I like ice cream. Chocolate is my favorite. You can add a common and a coordinating conjunction (remember the FANBOYS). ▫I like ice cream, and chocolate is my favorite. You can add a semi-colon between two complete sentences. ▫I like ice cream; chocolate is my favorite. You can put a subordinating conjunction at the beginning and put a comma between the two complete sentences. ▫Because I love ice cream, I ate an entire gallon. You can add a subordinating conjunction between the two complete sentences. ▫I ate an entire gallon of ice cream because I love it so much!
Question Can you separate two complete sentences with a comma? ▫For example: I like chocolate ice cream, I also like vanilla. Separating two complete sentences with a comma is a type of run-on called a comma splice!! Instead use one of the other five techniques to separate the two complete sentences.
Try different techniques with the same sentences we corrected earlier: I like ice cream chocolate is my favorite. Sometimes I like vanilla ice cream sometimes I like chocolate. She missed school yesterday she missed the bus. John sprained his ankle when he ran to catch the bus. The bus driver stopped the bus he helped John get on. If I don’t get up early enough, I won’t be able to catch the bus I will be late to school.
Practice: Correct the mistakes in this paragraphs. Look carefully for fragments and run-on sentences. Running late to class today. I did not hear. When my alarm went off. I finally jumped out of bed, I knew I would have to rush to get to class on time. I pulled on my pants I grabbed my bag I rushed out the door. But it was too late. The bus was pulling away from the curb, I ran to catch it, I was not fast enough. I sat down in the middle of the road, a car honked behind me. It was my neighbor. On her way to work. She waved me into the car, I was able to make it to class on time!
Final Practice Everyone write three sentences. One must have at least 30 words. One can have no more than four words. Be careful to avoid fragments and run-ons! Double-check your subject-verb agreement.