Operation Barbarossa June 22, 1941: Hitler launches Operation Barbarossa: Invasion of Soviet Union The Russians practiced a Scorched Earth Policy: Destroy everything the German’s would pass through Hitler’s largest Mistake of the War.
1942 January: 26 nations sign the United Nations agreement Beginning of the Battle of Stalingrad. November: Operation Torch: Allied forces (110.000 men) under Dwight D. Eisenhower land in North Africa.
Battle of Stalingrad On April 5, 1942, Hitler ordered his Armies to Stalingrad, Soviet forces would be completely cut off from their own oil supply. Operation Uranus: The Red Army secretly began to mobilize one million troops, 14,000 heavy guns, 979 tanks, and 1,350 aircraft to attack the Germans
Stalingrad The German Blitzkrieg stalled in Stalingrad German troops were prepared for Summer fighting, not the harsh Russian winters The Germans lost 147,000 men and 91,000 were taken prisoner. The Red Army lost 500,000 men in the battle. Stalingrad was the first battle where the German Army surrendered.
1942- Northern Africa Famous North African Tank Battles Axis Powers led by Erwin Rommel (Desert Fox) Allies led by Dwight Eisenhower and Bernard Montgomery Battle of El Alamein first victory for Allies in Northern Africa
1943 January 14: Casablanca Conference: FDR and Churchill announce they will accept nothing less than an unconditional surrender from the Axis powers May: German forces in Africa defeated, Rommel moved to European front.
1943 July-August Operation "Husky": Allied forces invade Sicily, Italy. The greatest Airborne-Amphibious Operation of WWII; 3.000 ships and landing-craft with 8 Divisions. November: Teheran Conference: First "Big Three" conference to discuss the upcoming Allied invasion of western Europe
December 24: General Eisenhower chosen Commander in Chief of Allied Forces in Europe.
1944 January: Leningrad freed from Germans June 4: Allied Forces capture Rome June 6: D-day
D-day: Normandy Invasion D-Day does not stand for Doomsday, it was a code word for the specific operation June 6: 5,000 ships and landing-crafts carried 5 Allied divisions to the French coast. At the first 48 hours, 107,000 men landed.
1944 June 12: In total 326.000 men, 104.000 ton material and 54.000 vehicles were carried to the French coast June 17: 587.000 landed July 2: In total 929.000 men, 586.000 ton material and 177.000 vehicles landed August 15: About 2.000.000 men landed
Battle of the Bulge December, 1944: Was the last major offensive by the German Army. Battle was primarily Ground infantry, Armored vehicles and planes.
Bulge Facts Over a million men: 500,000 Germans, 600,000 Americans and 55,000 British. 100,000 German casualties, killed, wounded or captured. 81,000 American casualties, including 23,554 captured and 19,000 killed. 1,400 British casualties 200 killed. 800 tanks lost on each side, 1,000 German aircraft.
1945 Through the late winter/spring Allied Forces pushed Axis forces back into Germany. The Big Three meet at Yalta to discuss Post-War Europe, beginning of disagreements between USSR and Allies: Possible start of Cold War
1945 April 16: FDR dies, Vice-President Truman becomes President April 30, 1945 Hitler, trapped in his Berlin Bunker, shoots himself May 8 1945: Germany formally surrenders July 1945: Potsdam Conference: Splitting of Germany into Four Allied Zones, Discussion of Japanese surrender.
Battle of Coral Sea: May 1942 Largest all air battle of the war, huge losses for American airmen. First battle to stop Japanese Aggression
June 1942: The Battle of Midway Turning Point in the War: Major Victory for US American Intelligence broke Japanese military codes, planned sneak attack against Japanese battle plan of Midway island. First Allied Victory
Island Hopping Allied strategy to avoid Japanese stronghold, hopping to Japan Led by Douglas MacArthur and Chester Nimitz
July-November 1942: Battle of Guadalcanal 1 st Offensive Victory of the Allies 1 st territory taken from the Japanese
1944- Battle of Leyte-Gulf First use of Japanese Suicide Pilots Kamikazes “Divine Wind”
1945 Iwo Jima / Okinawa Fiercest battles of the war Despite little chance of victory, Japanese would not surrender
1945 March ‑‑ Tokyo Air Raid : Bombing runs over Tokyo: These attacks on the mainland were part of the American effort to force Japan toward a surrender agreement. July: At the Potsdam Conference, Stalin agrees to enter the war against Japan in August.
President Truman learns about the A- bomb at the potsdam conference To save American lives, President Truman orders the use of the A-bomb on Japan. August 6 1945: The bombing of Hiroshima (Little Boy) August 9 1945: The bombing of Nagasaki (Fat Man)
Hiroshima- August 6 th –140,000 people killed Nagasaki- August 9 th –80,000 people killed
September 2: Japan officially surrenders Two important points of Japan’s surrender 1. The Emperor openly announces he was not a living god, shocking loyal followers 2. Japan was not, and still is not allowed to have any military forces.