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Three Memory Processes Memory = the storage and retrieval of what one has either learned or experienced
1. Encoding Transformation of information so the nervous system can process it Types of codes: 1.Acoustic 2.Visual 3.Semantic
2. Storage The process by which we remember material acquired over a period of time.
3. Retrieval The process of obtaining information from storage.
What is Memory Retrieval? The process of accessing stored information and making it available to our consciousness Some memories are retrieved easily Context-dependent memory effect
Memory Stages 1. Sensory Memory Sight Hearing Taste Etc.
Sensory Memory (cont.) The storage system that holds memory of sensory impressions is short-lived Iconic(visual) memory, eidetic(photographic) imagery, echoic(auditory) memory
2. Short-Term Memory (STM) Allows for the brief retention of newly acquired information, usually for a maximum of 30 seconds
George Miller’s Study Magic 7 - Discovered that the STM capacity was 7(+ or – 2) Examples of magic 7 7 Wonders of the world 7 dwarfs
Chunking The process of breaking down a large amount of information into smaller chunks Chunking makes recall easier
A Simple Test Row 1 2937 Row 2 78541 Row 3 821374 Row 4 3820961 Row 5 18294624 Row 6 9284619384 Row 7 1992199319941995
Long-Term Memory The storage of information over an extended time Information in long-term memory is organized by categories or features
Types of Long-Term Memory Semantic Memory Knowledge of language, including its rules, words, and meanings Semantic memory is not imprinted on our brains
Episodic Memory Memories of one’s own life (also includes the time experiences occurred) Like a personal diary
Declarative Memory Holds knowledge that can be called forth consciously as needed “What” and “that”
Procedural Memory Memory of learned skills that do not require conscious recollection We gradually lose the ability to describe what we are doing when we perform these skills
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