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The 3 box model of memory System to remembering.

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Presentation on theme: "The 3 box model of memory System to remembering."— Presentation transcript:

1 The 3 box model of memory System to remembering

2 objectives Analyze the 3 boxes of memory
Summarize how we use short term memory, and the parts of the brain associated with memory Describe the different contents of L.T.M.

3 Core Concept Each of the 3 memory stages encodes and stores memory in a different way, but they work together to transform sensory experience into lasting record that has a pattern of meaning Capacity- How much Duration- How long Structure, function, biological basis

4 Three-box model of memory
chapter 8 Three-box model of memory

5 Want to process this lecture? 3 stages
Like an assembly line Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Pioneered by Richard Atkinson, Richard Shiffrin

6 chapter 8 Sensory memory A memory system that momentarily preserves extremely accurate images of sensory information Pattern recognition The identification of a stimulus on the basis of information already contained in long-term memory Information that is not quickly passed to short-term memory is gone forever.

7 Sensory Memory Most fleeting of the 3
Involves lights, sounds, smells, textures Sparkler on 4th, listen to music Maintain long enough to go into working memory Vision and hearing for graphic organizers


9 chapter 8 Short-term memory A limited capacity memory system involved in the retention of information for brief periods Also used to hold information retrieved from long-term memory for temporary use Working memory A memory system which includes STM and mental processes that control retrieval of information from LT memory and interpret that information appropriately for a given task Chunk Meaningful unit of information which may be composed of smaller units

10 Working Memory Takes info. Selected from sensory registers and connects it with items already in long term storage Built for a few seconds to 30, temporarily holds items. Such as a phone number New info + long term memory= mental scratch pad For example contains numbers and instructions for doing necessary operations and intermediate results from each step

11 Methods for improving S.T.M.
Maintain rehearsal- going over (like for the spring play) Chunking units, like phone number

12 Parts of brain in working memory

13 chapter 8 Long-term memory The memory system involved in the long-term storage of information One way information is organized is in semantic categories (e.g., animals).

14 Capacity and Duration of Long-Term Memory
Unlimited storage Experiences, events, information, emotions, skills, words, categories, rules, Everything from STM Total knowledge of world and self Can store memory for a lifetime Undisputed champion of memory

15 chapter 8 Conceptual grid

16 Types of long-term memories
chapter 8 Types of long-term memories

17 Contents of long-term memory
chapter 8 Contents of long-term memory Procedural memories Memories for performance of actions or skills “Knowing how” Declarative memories Memories of facts, rules, concepts, and events; includes semantic and episodic memory “Knowing that”

18 Squire’s types of L.T.M. Procedural Memory- Mental directions or procedures “how to” ride a bike, tie a shoe In acquisition conscious of details Then skill occurs beyond awareness

19 Procedural memory in action!

20 2nd part Squire’s types of L.T.M.
Declarative memory- Stores specific information. Facts, events. Directions to a specific location, lat. long. Requires some conscious thought

21 Contents of long-term memory
chapter 8 Contents of long-term memory Semantic memories General knowledge, including facts, rules, concepts, and propositions Episodic memories Personally experienced events and the contexts in which they occurred

22 Tulving’s types of LTM Semantic memory- Stores basic meanings of words and concepts No info about time and place Meaning of word ‘cat’ Encyclopedia or data base Faces, names, religious beliefs, music manners

23 Tulving’s LTM Episodic memory- D.M. that stores personal experiences, events, episodes Has temporal coding or ‘ time tags’ When, Where, Context of memory Thus E.M. is autobiographical memory

24 chapter 8 Your turn What kind of memory is your memory for the fact that the earth is round? 1. Procedural memory 2. Semantic memory 3. Episodic memory 4. Flashbulb memory

25 chapter 8 Your turn What kind of memory is your memory for the fact that the earth is round? 1. Procedural memory 2. Semantic memory 3. Episodic memory 4. Flashbulb memory

26 Serial-position effect
chapter 8 Serial-position effect The tendency for recall of first and last items on a list to surpass recall of items in the middle of the list

27 Summary 3 boxes of memory

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