2 Adverbs A word that describes a verb is an adverb. Adverbs tell how, when, or where an action happens.Many adverbs end in –ly. Here is a list of common adverbs.How When Wherefast tomorrow herehard later insidetogether again farhappily often upstairsquietly first downtownsecretly next somewhereslowly then forward
3 Comparing with Adverbs Adverbs have special forms for comparisons.To compare two actions add –er to most short adverbs.To compare three or more actions add –est to most short adverbs.
4 Rules for Comparing with Adverbs 1.) Most short adverbs: Ex: late,add –er or –est to the adverb later, latest2.)Most adverbs of two or more Ex: often,syllables: more often,Use more or most with the most oftenadverb
5 Adverb or Adjective?Many adverbs end in –ly. These words look the same and are easy to confuse!Incorrect- He writes clear.(Adj.)Correct- He writes clearly. (Adv.)Use an adj. to describe a noun and an adv. to describe a verb.Lee has quick moves. (Adj.)She moves quickly.(Adv.)Good is always an adj. Use good before a noun or after a linking verb. Don’t use it to mean “healthy.”Well is an adverb which can describe a verb. Also, use it as an adj. to mean “healthy.”Ex: Sam draws frogs well. (Adv.)She isn’t well today. (Adj.)
6 PrepositionsA preposition relates another word in the sentence to the noun or pronoun that follows the preposition.Ex: We found it on the shelfWe found it under the shelf.The noun or pronoun that follows a preposition is the object of the preposition.Ex: I liked the book with the blue cover.**Copy list of common prepositions!!!!
7 Prepositional Phrases A prepositional phrase is made up of a preposition, the object of the preposition, and all the other words in between them.Ex: We packed the fruit in our knapsacks.The object of the preposition can be a compound object.Ex: We took enough oranges for Freddy and Sue.The prepositional phrase can be at the beginning, middle, or end of the sentence.Ex: At dawn we began our walk.The map of the area was helpful.The path went by the forest and a large lake.When the object of the preposition is a pronoun, use an object pronouns. (me, you, him, her, it, us, and them)
8 Adverb or Preposition ?Some words can be either used as an adverb or a prepostion.Ex: Susan ran inside.(Adv.)Her hat was inside the store.(Prep.)If the word begins a prepositional phrase it is a preposition. Otherwise it is an adverb.Words used as adverbs or prepositions:above near insidealong offaround overbelow outby outsidedown underin up
9 Independent and Dependent Clauses A clause is a group of words that work together. They contain at least a subject and a verb.An Independent Clause expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence.Example: Joey rode the bus.A Dependent Clause, also called a fragment, does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence.Example: When Joey rode the bus.A dependent clause may begin with : until, when, after, since, as , who or thatA dependent clause must be paired with at least one independent clause to create a complete sentence.Ex: After I went skating yesterday, I ran into an old friend in the parking lot.A comma is used between two independent clauses, and it is placed before the conjunctionEx: My teacher is intelligent, and I've learned a lot from her.
10 If a dependent clause comes at the beginning of a sentence, and an independent clause comes at the end. You put a comma after the dependent clause.Ex: Although Tom reads novels, Jack reads comics.
11 .SentencesA simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a subject and a verb, and it expresses a complete thought.Ex: Some students like to study in the mornings.A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. The coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. (FANBOYS.) Ex: I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English.A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which.Ex: When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the last page. Compound-complex -more than one independent clause and at least one dependent clause.Ex: After it was all over, my dad claimed he knew we were planning something, but we think he was really surprised.