Presentation on theme: "Kyoto Protocol and Beyond"— Presentation transcript:
1 Kyoto Protocol and Beyond Timeline1992, Rio de Janeiro: UN Framework Convention on Climate Change160 countries signedApplied in 1994Developed countries should take the lead to return GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2000Conferences of the Parties have been held to work on the Convention agreement14 sessions through 20081997 Kyoto Protocol—1st binding legislation under the Convention
2 Kyoto Protocol Basic structure formulated in 1997 Final form agreed upon in 2001US withdrew prior to 2001By 2003, 120 countries had ratified the protocolProtocol came into force in 2005 (55 countries had to ratify)1st commitmentAnnex 1 countries (developed countries)Reduced emissions from to 1990 levels
5 Kyoto Mechanisms Joint Implementation (JI) Projects (jointly) funded by an industrialized country in another industrialized country to reduce emissions or increase GHG sinksClean Development Mechanism (CDM)Projects funded by industrialized countries in developing countries to reduce emissions or increase GHG sinks (and aid sustainable development in poor countries)Emissions TradingProvides for industrialized countries to purchase ‘assigned amount units’ of emissions from another industrialized country to help meet emission targetsCarbon trading—Andy Ford lectures, April 19, 21
6 Post-Kyoto Negotiations http://unfccc. int/meetings/cop_14/items/4481 2007 Bali Conferencecalled on the conference to agree on a road-map, timetable and 'concrete steps for the negotiations' with a view to reaching an agreement by It has been debated whether this global meeting on climate change has achieved anything significant at all.Bali Road Map and Action PlanA shared vision for long-term cooperative action, including a long-term global goal for emission reductions.Enhanced national/international action on mitigation of climate change.Enhanced action on adaptation.Enhanced action on technology development and transfer to support action on mitigation and adaptation.Enhanced action on the provision of financial resources and investment to support action on mitigation and adaptation and technology cooperation2008 Conference on Climate Change, Poznan, PolandA clear commitment was made to shift into full negotiating mode next year in order to shape an ambitious and effective international response to climate change, to be agreed in Copenhagen at the end of Parties agreed that the first draft of a concrete negotiating text would be available at a UNFCCC gathering in Bonn in June of 2009.Finishing touches were put to the Kyoto Protocol’s Adaptation Fund, with Parties agreeing that the Adaptation Fund Board should have legal capacity to grant direct access to developing countries. Progress was also made on a number of important ongoing issues that are particularly important for developing countries, including: adaptation; finance; technology; reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD); and disaster management.
7 Post-Kyoto Negotiations http://unfccc. int/meetings/cop_14/items/4481 2009 Conference on Climate Change, Copenhagen, DenmarkAttendance by 120 Heads of State and Government, raising climate discussions to a new level.Record numbers of participants including 10,500 delegates, 13,500 observers, and coverage by more than 3,000 media representativesIntensive negotiations characterized by over 1,000 official, informal and group meetings among Parties. Observers discussed climate change in more than 400 meetings and media attended over 300 press conferences.A vibrant program of over 200 side events.Over 220 exhibits from Parties, UN, IGOs and civil societyA total of 23 decisions adopted by the COP and the CMPGovernments engaged at the highest political level, and the outcome of that engagement was reflected in the Copenhagen Accord. While much attention has focused on the Accord, the Conference in Copenhagen also made good progress in a number of areas including improvements to the clean development mechanism, amending Annex I to the Convention to add Malta, guidance on REDD+, and draft decisions on adaptation, technology, and capacity-building.However, the Bali Roadmap negotiations could not be concluded and negotiations will continue in 2010.
8 Post-Kyoto Negotiations http://cancun.unfccc.int/ 2010 Conference on Climate Change, Cancun, MexicoCancun Agreementsestablish clear objectives for reducing human-generated greenhouse gas emissions over time to keep the global average temperature rise below two degreesencourage the participation of all countries in reducing these emissions, in accordance with each country’s different responsibilities and capabilities to do soensure the international transparency of the actions which are taken by countries and ensure that global progress towards the long-term goal is reviewed in a timely waymobilize the development and transfer of clean technology to boost efforts to address climate change, getting it to the right place at the right time and for the best effectmobilize and provide scaled-up funds in the short and long term to enable developing countries to take greater and effective actionassist the particularly vulnerable people in the world to adapt to the inevitable impacts of climate changeprotect the world’s forests, which are a major repository of carbonbuild up global capacity, especially in developing countries, to meet the overall challengeestablish effective institutions and systems which will ensure these objectives are implemented successfully
9 Post-Kyoto StatusConferences on Climate Change continue to provide a platform for negotiation and progressKyoto first commitment period ends in 2012Reduction targets have not yet been met, target of 2 deg warming will not be achieved with present effortsDuring 2010, many countries submitted their existing plans for controlling greenhouse gas emissions to the Climate Change Secretariat.Industrial countries presented their plans in the shape of economy-wide targets to reduce emissions, mainly up to 2020Developing nations proposed ways to limit their growth of emissions in the shape of voluntary plans of action.